Finding Hector...

My mother brought me up in Tchaikovsky,Beethoven,and Stravinsky.I discovered Julian Bream and the early music scene early in my early teenagery.As a teenager I was long in the care of my uncle's lover Fred,who indoctrinated me heavily into the operatic world of Bellini,Donizetti,Wagner,and Verdi.Perhaps the biggest part of that world was the organ music of Bach,which usually every afternoon after I came home from school we turned up very loudly E.Power Biggs and Bach's Organ fugues on Fred's McKintosh all tube stereo.This had tremendous appeal for me...not only as a spirit,but as a teenager,as the correlation between loud earth-shaking Bach fugues and Black Sabbath or Led Zeppelin was not a difficult one to make.While Hectors Symphonie Fantastique was a part of this melodramatic world...that was the totality of my association with Hector until my I principally lived in a Russo-Italo-Germanic musical world.

         What a joy and a shock it has been to find Hector in recent years.All of a sudden I see where Rimsky Korsakoff received his lessons in orchestral color...and Wagner as well.But really essentially that is superficial,because what has made Hector my favorite symphonic composer is his ability (more than anyone else in the history of orchestral and large-scale composition is his ability to encompass all moods so effectively.He can  be structurally dense and regimented like Beethoven-He can be colorful in the extreme like Liszt or Rimsky-Korsakoff-He can be saturday- afternoon at the opera gala like Rossini-He can be brilliantly schizoid like Schumann-He can be lyrical and evocative like Bellini or Schubert-He can be brilliant imaginative in rhetorical episodry like Cherubini...and like Cherubini has his touch for the large scale sacred as well.Perhaps Hector was not an easy man with whom to live as someone is able to effectively encompass so many moods....must be quite familiar with them himself...

     But perhaps more importantly...and so rare among the capacity to be able to express so much fancy... so economically.Frequently Hector just allows a couple ...or even one note from the basses or the chorus to bloom and resonate to such effect it is remarkable.In an era where most of us rely on electronic technology to play back for us what we think that we are composing....Berlioz had none of that....and certainly beyond Mozart in this regard....Hector has the capacity in his head to hear all of these episodes TOTALLY IDIOMATICALLY for the orchestra.He writes as easily for the orchestra from his head as I play the guitar from my fingers...Oh YES...and mentioning the guitar....I am so thankful that his father discouraged his early pianism...because the stamp of the poetry of the guitar is all over Hector's works.Those who don't play the guitar little realize how bizarre the guitar is harmonically and contrapuntally.A keyboard is thoroughly logical and encourages text-book crowded harmonic clusters of 4 voices,which can logically progress forever.The a demanding mistress...who will hear none of that.She has her own ways...and although many guitarists these days try to overwhelm her sensibilities with superhuman the doesn't really work.The guitar does not like logical contrapuntal and tightly clustered harmonic progressions...IN fact,it sneers at them .It knows how to be poetic without that kind of textbook logic....AND Hector learned that....because so many unusual sonorites abound in his orchestrations...and when I wonder..."Good  God,Where in the hell did he get that from?!?"...When I put that sequence on the guitar in my mind...I immediately realize...this is guitar poetry...transcribed orchestrally.Just today I was listening to a section in the Requiem where the the melody descends into the doublebass section and them tumbles all over itself in the most unusual way and clearly unclear way.You would not hear this from Brahms,Bach,Mozart,or they are full of the logic of keyboard.No...this is the poetry of the plucked instrument,and that particular technique,(the  dense intermixing of voicing)was so common in the Baroque guitar compositions of Corbetta and of course it migrated into the music of the Late Galant Classical Guitar virtuosi  such as Zani Ferranti(Hector's favorite guitar virtuoso)as well.

                     Also for me...his instrumental choices suit me perfectly as I dislike the violin,like the cello...but adore the viola...and what does he pick for the principal instrument for Harold in Italy?...The Viola...of course! But it doesn't stop there...his use of the bassoon,the harp and many other lesser used combinations excite my sensibilities.The thing that he doesn't sound experimental...he sounds authoritative when he does this.These colors pop right out of him at usually the perfect moment in the right way  to capture the episode.The 19th century had it's share of acoustic geniuses...probably with Franz Liszt,Rinsky Korsakoff,and Rrichard Wagner at the top of the list...but Hector is the greatest.He throws the orchestra around with such confidence and effectiveness that it all sounds so amazing and...simple

In the end....what Hector has in greater measure than everyone the ability to be at the right place,in the right episode,at the right time...and that is what it succeed;and succeed with utmost distinction he did.

 Nuits d'été. Janet Baker.n°4    "Absence"

Hector Berlioz est un compositeur, un écrivain et un critique français...

Hector Berlioz est un compositeur, un écrivain et un critique français, né le 11 décembre 1803 à La Côte-Saint-André en Isère, mort le 8 mars 1869 à Paris, au 4 rue de Calais, dans le quartier de la Nouvelle Athènes.

Il est considéré comme l'un des plus grands représentants du romantisme européen, bien qu'il récusât le terme de « romantique » qui ne signifiait rien à ses yeux. Il se définissait en fait comme un compositeur classique. Sa musique eut la réputation de ne pas respecter les lois de l'harmonie, accusation qui ne résiste pas à une lecture approfondie de ses partitions. On y découvre, paradoxalement, que Berlioz respecte les fondements historiques de l'harmonie datant du XVIe siècle (règles régissant les mouvements contraires et conjoints), mais qu'il s'affranchit parfois des règles supplémentaires apparues plus tardivement et esthétiquement discutables (règles de modulation cadentielle entre autres).

Biographie [modifier] Hector Berlioz est issu d'une vieille famille dauphinoise. Son père, Louis Berlioz, est médecin et sa mère, Antoinette-Joséphine Marmion, une catholique fervente. À l'âge de 6 ans, Hector est envoyé au séminaire pour suivre ses études. À la fermeture de l'établissement, en 1811, son père décide de se charger de l'éducation d'Hector, le destinant à une carrière de médecin. Ce qui ne l'empêchait pas de compléter sa formation avec un maître de musique qui lui enseignait le chant et la flûte. À l’âge de douze ans, il commence à composer

Inscrit à l’école de médecine de Paris, il quitte sa famille et suit les cours pendant une année, avant d'écrire à son père qu'il préfère l’art à la médecine : « Je sentis ma passion pour la musique s’accroître et l’emporter sur mon désir de satisfaire mon père ». Il se brouille avec sa famille, fréquente l'Opéra de Paris et suit les enseignements de Jean-François Lesueur puis d'Antoine Reicha.

Les débuts

Alors que sa formation musicale est rudimentaire, il commence à jouer de la guitare et du flageolet. Il est très tôt attiré par la vie parisienne des années de la Restauration des Bourbons, période marquée d'un grand élan culturel et intellectuel 

En 1823 il étudie la composition au Conservatoire de Paris.
Il écrit sa Messe solennelle en 1824, découvre Weber (il s'en souviendra pour la Symphonie fantastique) et malgré son échec au concours de Rome en 1826, il poursuit ses études au Conservatoire (dirigé alors par le grand maître de l'époque Luigi Cherubini) avec l'enseignement remarquable de Anton Reicha pour la fugue et le contrepoint mais aussi la composition avec Lesueur. Sa cantate La mort d'Orphée est jugée injouable par le jury. Au cours d'une représentation d'Hamlet il découvre Shakespeare et tombe amoureux de Harriet Smithson, l'actrice irlandaise de la pièce, qu'il épousera en 1833.

Il découvre aussi Goethe et son Faust : il va écrire sur la traduction de Gérard de Nerval tout d'abord Huit scènes de Faust (1828) et puis en 1846 la légende dramatique La damnation de Faust.

L'exécution en 1828 des symphonies de Beethoven par François-Antoine Habeneck va l'impressionner.

La Symphonie fantastique  Dès 1830, six ans seulement après la symphonie n° 9 de Beethoven, ses études, ses influences et aussi son génie (ainsi que son amour dévorant pour Harriet Smithson) lui permettent d'écrire la Symphonie fantastique op. 14 qui enthousiasme Franz Liszt, mais provoque un grand scandale auprès d'un public qui ne se rend pas compte de la portée de l'œuvre : elle va relancer la « musique à programme » ou « musique descriptive » et trouver des prolongements dans toute la musique allemande (Liszt, Richard Strauss) et française (Saint-Saëns, Dukas, Franck, d'Indy) qui va suivre. Dès 1834, il se fait connaître comme critique dans la Gazette musicale puis dans le Journal des débats, et y soutient son système musical qui subordonne l'harmonie à la recherche de l'expression.

Les voyages, le critique-écrivain  Il remporte le prestigieux Prix de Rome en 1831 avec sa cantate La dernière nuit de Sardanapale, ce qui l'oblige à vivre à l'académie de France à Rome (Villa Médicis), il rencontre Mendelssohn mais l'Italie l'inspire et le déçoit tout à la fois. En 1831 et 1832, son séjour lui inspire Lélio ou le retour à la vie, Le roi Lear et il compose Harold en Italie (1834) pour alto et orchestre à la demande de Paganini sur un poème de Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, cette œuvre est comme une « seconde Symphonie fantastique ».

Il est engagé en 1835 comme critique musical dans Le Journal des Débats où ses articles devaient faire date et lui valoir de nombreuses inimitiés. Il signe ses articles jusqu'en 1864.

Le Requiem  Alors qu'à travers l'Europe, il était considéré comme un héros romantique, il demeurait un ennemi à Paris où la musique était avant tout affaire de politique et de pouvoir, d'alliances et de trahisons.

Ainsi, lorsqu'il obtint un contrat du ministère des beaux-arts pour une messe des morts, les partisans du directeur du Conservatoire, Cherubini, tentèrent (en vain) de faire échouer le contrat. Mais après qu'il eut fini l'œuvre (en l'espace de trois mois), que les arrangements eurent été pris pour sa création, le ministère annula, sans explication, le concert.

Le Requiem eut sa chance, toutefois, grâce au concours d'amis bien placés, en décembre 1837 en la Chapelle des Invalides, décorée de milliers de chandelles, de la famille royale, du corps diplomatique et de toute la société parisienne ; Berlioz avait obtenu 190 instrumentistes, 210 choristes, quatre ensembles de cuivres placés dans les coins de la chapelle, ainsi que seize timbales.

« Au moment de [l'entrée des quatre orchestres de cuivre], au début du Tuba mirum qui s’enchaîne sans interruption avec le Dies irae, le mouvement s’élargit du double; tous les instruments de cuivre éclatent d’abord à la fois dans le nouveau mouvement, puis s’interpellent et se répondent à distance, par des entrées successives, échafaudées à la tierce supérieure les unes des autres. Il est donc de la plus haute importance de clairement indiquer les quatre temps de la grande mesure à l’instant où elle intervient. Sans quoi ce terrible cataclysme musical, préparé de si longue main, où des moyens exceptionnels et formidables sont employés dans des proportions et des combinaisons que nul n’avait tentées alors et n’a essayées depuis, ce tableau musical du Jugement Dernier, qui restera, je l’espère, comme quelque chose de grand dans notre art, peut ne produire qu’une immense et effroyable cacophonie.
Par suite de ma méfiance habituelle, j’étais resté derrière Habeneck et, lui tournant le dos, je surveillais le groupe des timbaliers, qu’il ne pouvait pas voir, le moment approchant où ils allaient prendre part à la mêlée générale. Il y a peut-être mille mesures dans mon Requiem. Précisément sur celle dont je viens de parler, celle où le mouvement s’élargit, celle où les instruments de cuivre lancent leur terrible fanfare, sur la mesure unique enfin dans laquelle l’action du chef d’orchestre est absolument indispensable, Habeneck baisse son bâton, tire tranquillement sa tabatière et se met à prendre une prise de tabac. J’avais toujours l’œil de son côté ; à l’instant je pivote rapidement sur un talon, et m’élançant devant lui, j’étends mon bras et je marque les quatre grands temps du nouveau mouvement. Les orchestres me suivent, tout part en ordre, je conduis le morceau jusqu’à la fin, et l’effet que j’avais rêvé est produit. Quand, aux derniers mots du chœur, Habeneck vit le Tuba mirum sauvé: « Quelle sueur froide j’ai eue, me dit-il, sans vous nous étions perdus! — Oui, je le sais bien, répondis je en le regardant fixement. » Je n’ajoutai pas un mot … L’a-t-il fait exprès ? Serait-il possible que cet homme, d’accord avec M. XX., qui me détestait, et les amis de Cherubini ait osé méditer et tenter de commettre une aussi basse scélératesse ? Je n’y veux pas songer… Mais je n’en doute pas. Dieu me pardonne si je lui fais injure. »
    — Hector Berlioz, Mémoires, Ch.46

Le Requiem lui gagna une acclamation immense de la part des critiques ainsi que de la part du public.

L'opéra En 1838, pour son entrée à l'Opéra avec Benvenuto Cellini l'atmosphère de cabale organisée par ses adversaires conduit à un échec des représentations.
Mais son engagement à la bibliothèque du Conservatoire et l'estime que lui porte Paganini lui permettent d'écrire Roméo et Juliette (1839) qui enthousiasme Richard Wagner.

La période 1840-1841 voit la composition de la Symphonie funèbre et triomphale, le cycle des Nuits d'été (sur six poèmes de Théophile Gautier: Villanelle, Le spectre de la rose, Absence, Sur les lagunes, Au cimetière, l'île inconnue) pour voix et piano qu'il orchestrera par la suite.

En ces années son prestige comme chef d'orchestre est plus important qu'en tant que compositeur, et plus à l'étranger qu'en France ; il joue ses œuvres mais aussi celles de ses confrères en Belgique, Allemagne, Angleterre, Hongrie ou en Russie avec sa nouvelle compagne la cantatrice Marie Recio. La création de L'enfance du Christ est un triomphe (1864). La période anglaise 1847-1848 est particulièrement fertile en aventures. Berlioz dirige l'orchestre de Drury Lane à Londres, dirigé par le chef d'orchestre et compositeur Louis-Antoine Jullien, le roi des concerts promenades et des concerts monstres qui a sollicité Berlioz...qui, après l'avoir encensé le maudira. Louis-Antoine Jullien est un fou à plus d'un titre.

Les Troyens  En 1856 il débute la composition de son « opus magnum » les Troyens, en écrit le livret inspiré par le poème épique œuvre de Virgile L'Énéide. La genèse de son ouvrage remonte à sa plus tendre enfance, l'influence de Virgile et de Shakespeare est récurrente dans son œuvre. Les Troyens est achevé deux ans plus tard mais il ne peut le faire jouer en intégralité, les administrateurs sont effrayés par la durée et les moyens exigés par l'œuvre.

Il va encore composer l'opéra-comique Béatrice et Bénédict sur Beaucoup de bruit pour rien de Shakespeare ; après la mort de Marie, puis de son fils Louis, il tombe malade. Après une tournée triomphale en Russie, au cours de laquelle il va influencer les jeunes Moussorgski, Rimsky-Korsakoff et Borodine, il décède le 8 mars 1869. Il est enterré au cimetière de Montmartre avec son épouse, Joséphine Duvernoy et son fils Louis Duvernoy.

Son œuvre

Analyse  L'influence des thèmes beethoveniens et shakespeariens qui s'entrecroisent dans toute sa production marquent son oeuvre, ainsi que son attachement à la musique de la période révolutionnaire et de l'Empire, comme le prouve son admiration pour Gluck ou Spontini.
Il est une grande figure romantique, à l'humour ravageur, mais très rigoureux dans l'écriture, et très exalté dans l'exécution. Son œuvre va peu à peu se dégager de la forme musicale académique de son temps vers des orchestrations d'une grande richesse de timbres et de couleurs, à l'écriture contrapunctique toute personnelle, et vers son goût pour les très grandes formations orchestrales. Ses velléités de liberté le conduiront à s'affranchir des textes qu'il met en musique au point de les écrire lui-même comme le fit aussi Richard Wagner.

L'orchestrateur de génie  Sans tomber dans l'exagération qui prévalait à l'époque, Berlioz s'intéressa énormément à la nature des timbres. Il fut également l'ami d'Adolphe Sax dont il encourageait fortement les travaux, notamment ceux concernant la famille des Saxophones.

Une œuvre parfois mal aimée en France  Irréductible à toute école, la musique de Berlioz est d'une grande originalité. Cependant, en dépit des succès considérables remportés à l'étranger, son œuvre est restée longtemps méconnue, voire mésestimée, dans son propre pays, mis à part certains extraits de la Damnation de Faust et bien sûr la Symphonie Fantastique (superbe et indémodable enregistrement de Charles Münch à la tête de l'Orchestre de Paris).

Elle fut cependant reçue en Allemagne, depuis les premières représentations des Troyens par Félix Mottl à la fin du XIXe siècle jusqu’à Rafael Kubelík qui fut l’artisan de leur résurrection dans les années 1960. Depuis lors, les Allemands ont su organiser chez eux des congrès Berlioz, par exemple à Essen-Werden en juin 2003, sous l’initiative d’Hermann Hofer et Matthias Brzoska. Ces toutes dernières années, Les Troyens et Benvenuto Cellini sont passés au répertoire habituel de Dresde, Leipzig, Mannheim, Hambourg, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et Gelsenkirchen.

En France, sous la direction de Serge Baudo, Lyon accueillit pendant quelque dix ans le festival international Hector-Berlioz. Le Festival Berlioz se poursuit dorénavant à La Côte Saint-André (Isère), sa ville natale. Également, Les Troyens fut l'ouvrage lyrique représenté lors de l'inauguration de l'Opéra-Bastille à Paris en mars 1990.

Title Text.


ルイ・エクトル・ベルリオーズLouis Hector Berlioz, 1803年12月11日 - 1869年3月8日)は、《幻想交響曲》で良く知られているフランスロマン派音楽作曲家である。この他に《死者のための大ミサ曲(レクイエム)》(1837年)にみられるように、楽器編成のはなはだしい拡張や、色彩的な管弦楽法によってロマン派音楽の動向を先取りした。

生涯 フランス南部のラ・コート=サンタンドレに生まれる。ここはリヨングルノーブルのほぼ中間に位置する。父親は開業医であり、息子が18歳の時に、家業を継がせるためにパリに行かせた。ベルリオーズ青年は解剖学の途中で気がひるみ、それから1年後に父親の反対にもかかわらず医学の道を捨て、音楽を学び始めた。パリ音楽院に入学して、オペラ作曲を学ぶ。(Kamien 241)


「エクトル・ベルリオーズは、管見によると、ユゴーやドラクロワとともに、ロマン主義芸術の三位一体をなしているようだ」 ベルリオーズは生まれながらにロマンティックで、幼少の頃からすこぶる感受性が強かったと言われている。これは、ウェルギリウスの数節で涙したという少年時代や、長じてからは一連の恋愛関係に明らかである。23歳の時の、イギリスから来たシェイクスピア劇の劇団の女優アイルランド人ハリエット・スミスソンへの片想いは、やがて《幻想交響曲》の着想へと膨らんだ。この作品の初演と同じ1830年ローマ大賞を受賞する。



しかしながら2年もすると、2人の関係はたちまち冷え込んでいった (Kamien 242)。さまざまな理由が挙げられているが、なかでも言葉の壁が大きかったと推測されている。また他には、ベルリオーズはスミスソンを一人の女性として彼女の人間性に惚れたのではなく、彼女が演じる役(「ロミオとジュリエット」の「ジュリエット」等)に惚れたために、彼女と結婚して彼女が普通の女性である事に気がつき失望したのだとする説もある。2人は1841年頃から別居し、1854年に彼女が亡くなると、すでに同棲していた歌手のマリー・レシオと結婚する。














ベルリオーズの型破りな音楽作品は、既存の演奏界やオペラ界を刺戟した。ベルリオーズは、演奏会の段取りを自力でつけるだけでなく、演奏者への俸給も自前で調達しなければならなかった。これはベルリオーズに、経済的にも心情的にも重い負担となってのしかかった。ベルリオーズの演奏会には1,200人の常連客がついていて、入場者数を確保できたが、大掛かりな――数百人もの演奏者を要する――ベルリオーズ作品の性質上、経済的な成功は望めなかった。ジャーナリスティックな才能から、音楽評論がベルリオーズにとって手っ取り早い収入源となり、音楽会においてドラマや表現力の重要性を力説する、機知に富んだ批評文によって飢えをしのぐことができた。(Kamien 243)

 著作 ベルリオーズは作曲家として最も有名である半面、多作な著作家でもあり、長年にわたって音楽評論を執筆して生計を立てていた。大胆で力強い文体により、時に独断的かつ諷刺的な文調で、執筆を続けた。『オーケストラのある夜会』(1852年)は、19世紀フランスの地方の音楽界をあてこすりつつ酷評したものである。ベルリオーズの『回想録』(1870年)は、ロマン派音楽の時代の姿を、時代の権化の目を通して、尊大に描き出したものである。『音楽のグロテスク』(1859年)はオーケストラ夜話の続編として出版された。

教育的な著作である『管弦楽法』Grand Traité d’Instrumentation et d’Orchestration Modernes1844年1855年補訂)によって、ベルリオーズは管弦楽法の巨匠として後世に多大な影響を与えた。この理論書はマーラーリヒャルト・シュトラウスによって詳細に研究され、リムスキー=コルサコフによって自身の『管弦楽法原理』の補強に利用された。リムスキー=コルサコフは修業時代に、ベルリオーズがロシア楽旅で指揮したモスクワペテルブルクの音楽会に通い詰めていた。ノーマン・レブレヒトは次のように述べている。



Louis Hector Berlioz – kompozytor francuski, twórca symfonii romantycznej...

Louis Hector Berlioz (ur. 11 grudnia 1803 w La Côte-Saint-André koło Grenoble, zm. 8 marca 1869 w Paryżu) – kompozytor francuski, twórca symfonii romantycznej, prekursor nowoczesnej kolorystyki, którego twórczość nadała kierunek rozwoju XIX-wiecznej symfonice; pisarz i krytyk muzyczny.


Ojciec Berlioza, doktor medycyny, przeznaczył syna do zawodu lekarskiego i początkowo nie przeszkadzał rozwijaniu wyraźnych zdolności muzycznych chłopca. 12-letni Berlioz śpiewał, grał na flecie, gitarze, uczył się harmonii, zaczynał nawet komponować. W 1821 został wysłany do Paryża do Szkoły Medycznej; dwa lata później rozpoczął systematyczne studia kompozytorskie u J. F. Lesueura, decydując się na porzucenie medycyny. Kontynuował naukę (1826-1828) w konserwatorium: harmonię i kontrapunkt u A. Reichy, kompozycję nadal u Lesueura. W 1829 powstała kantata oparta na scenach z Fausta, którą następnie kompozytor przerobił (1846) na "koncertową operę" Potępienie Fausta (La Damnation de Faust). W następnym roku Berlioz napisał jedno ze swych największych dzieł, programową Symfonię fantastyczną. Za symfonię Harold w Italii (1834) Paganini przesłał Berliozowi podarunek w postaci 20 000 franków.

Obok twórczości Berlioz zajmował się także działalnością publicystyczną (od 1835 roku był stałym krytykiem muzycznym "Journal des Debats"). Walczył o swobodę i tolerancję dla nowej sztuki. Pierwsza opera, Benvenuto Cellini, wystawiona w 1838, nie zdobyła powodzenia, a życzliwe przyjęcie dramatycznej symfonii Romeo i Julia (1839) nie zmieniło nieufności do kompozytora. Także Potępienie Fausta, wykonane w Paryżu (1846), spotkało się z obojętnością słuchaczy – dopiero podróż koncertowa po Niemczech przyniosła Berliozowi sukcesy. Oratorium Dzieciństwo Chrystusa (L'Enfance du Christ) zdobyło wreszcie (1854) publiczność Paryża. Następnego roku Liszt, serdeczny przyjaciel Berlioza, zorganizował Festiwal Berliozowski w Weimarze. W 1863 wystawiona została w Paryżu opera-dramat liryczny Trojanie (do libretta wg Eneidy Wergiliusza). Sukcesom kompozytorskim towarzyszyły ciężkie przeżycia osobiste Berlioza: zmarła druga żona kompozytora, niedługo potem jedyny syn. Na rok przed śmiercią Berlioz odbył triumfalną podróż koncertową po Rosji. Prócz wymienionych dzieł ważne miejsce w twórczości Berlioza zajmują uwertury: Król Lear (1831) i Karnawał rzymski (1844), opera komiczna Beatrycze i Benedykt (1863), Requiem (1837), pisał też utwory na chór z orkiestrą, kantaty, pieśni na głos z fortepianem, kompozycje religijne.

Twórczość i interpretacja symfonii Berlioz to czołowy twórca symfoniki romantycznej, właściwie jej pierwszy, najpilniejszy wyraziciel. Jego zdobyczą jest uzyskanie symbiozy formy symfonicznej (koncertowej) z teatralnym gestem, dramatycznością, patosem; stworzenie symfonicznej muzyki programowej, niekiedy wprost ilustracyjnej (Symfonią fantastyczną inspirowały bezpośrednio wypadki życiowe i doznawane w związku z nimi wrażenia), umiejętność plastycznej charakterystyki muzycznej. Równocześnie jednak występują w tej muzyce wyraźnie takie niedostatki, jak słabość konstrukcji, niedbała szkicowość formy, emocjonalizm zatrącający o banał lub egzaltację. Terenem, na którym geniusz kompozytora wyraził się najpełniej i w sposób absolutnie nowatorski, jest orkiestracja. Berlioz – autor świetnego podręcznika instrumentacji – dał początek nowoczesnej kolorystyce dźwiękowej. Grupy instrumentów traktował jako kompleksy barwne (w skrzypcach stosuje częste divisi, flażolety, grę w najwyższych rejestrach, mało znane przedtem pizzicato), rozszerzył możliwości techniczne niemal wszystkich instrumentów orkiestry, zwielokrotnił obsadę zespołu symfonicznego, z barwą instrumentalną chętnie łączył brzmienie chórów. Epokowe w tej dziedzinie zdobycze Berlioza nadały kierunek rozwojowi całej XIX-wiecznej symfoniki.

W trzy lata po śmierci Beethovena (1827) wykonano po raz pierwszy Symfonię fantastyczną Berlioza. Te dwie daty dzieli krótki czas, ale różnica w charakterze muzyki obu kompozytorów jest olbrzymia. Pod wpływem poglądów estetycznych francuskiego kapelmistrza nadwornego, Lesueura, od pierwszych swoich dzieł postawił sobie Berlioz jako artystyczny cel wyrażanie czy odtwarzanie zdarzeń i poetyckich pierwowzorów środkami muzycznymi. Konsekwentnie realizując swoje zamierzenia, stał się właściwym twórcą nowoczesnej muzyki programowej, której źródłem była dla niego VI Symfonia Pastoralna Beethovena. "Je suis un crescendo de Beethoven" ("Jestem crescendem Beethovena") wyraził się Berlioz, wskazując wyraźnie na rzekomy związek swojej muzyki z dziełami wielkiego klasyka. Rzekomy, bo w rzeczywistości zachowując nazwy "symfonia" czy "uwertura" i nie zrywając pozornie z tradycją, rozsadzał Berlioz utarte formy i dążył zupełnie inną niż Beethoven drogą do realizacji swojego artystycznego credo. Dla jak najbardziej sugestywnego wyrażania treści programowych posługiwał się przede wszystkim wspaniałą, zupełnie nową paletą barw orkiestralnych, wykorzystywał wszelkie osiągalne wtedy możliwości instrumentów i efekty wynikające z ich zestawień. Chociaż te rewelacyjne kiedyś środki dziś już zbladły, to jednak bez nich nie do pomyślenia byłby dźwiękowy świat Wagnera, Liszta, Rimskiego-Korsakowa, R. Straussa, Debussy'ego czy Ravela.

Symfonia fantastyczna, pierwsza wielka kompozycja Berlioza i najpopularniejsza ze wszystkich, jakie napisał, stała się manifestacją jego założeń artystycznych, a zarazem pierwszą wyraźnie autobiograficzną symfonią. Dzieło zrodziło się z własnych przeżyć i uczuć kompozytora, ukazując wyraźnie jego egzaltowaną naturę i romantyczną wyobraźnię. Nieszczęśliwa, nie odwzajemniona miłość do angielskiej aktorki, Harriet Smithson (która w końcu została żona Berlioza), inspirowała muzykę Symfonii fantastycznej. Berlioz nie ukrywał motywów, które nim kierowały. Nie tylko opatrzył dzieło podtytułem: Epizod z życia artysty, ale też dla jasnego zrozumienia intencji dzieła przez publiczność dał jego dokładny komentarz literacki, ufantastycznioną historię swej miłości. Komentarz ukazał się w paryskiej gazecie "Figaro" (21 V 1830) przed prawykonaniem dzieła w pierwszej wersji. Oto jego treść: "Kompozytor miał zamiar przedstawić muzyką różne momenty z życia artysty. Plan do instrumentalnego dramatu bez tekstu musi być z góry wyjaśniony. Program niniejszy należy przeto uważać za jakby mówiony tekst opery, przedstawiający charakter i wyraz następujących po sobie części".

Pierwsza część: Marzenia. Namiętności. Autor przyjmuje, że młody muzyk w owym stanie duszy, który słynny pisarz Chateaubriand określa tak trafnie jako fale namiętnością, spostrzega po raz pierwszy kobietę łączącą w sobie wszystkie uroki wyśnione w marzeniach o idealnej istocie. Zakochuje się do szaleństwa. Osobliwy kaprys losu sprawia, że obraź ukochanej ukazuje mu się zawsze wraz z muzyczną myślą, w której odnajduje pełen szlachetnej namiętności charakter ukochanej. Ta melodia i jej pierwowzór prześladują go ciągle jak podwójna idee fixe. Oto powód nieustannego powracania melodii, rozpoczynającej pierwsze Allegro, we wszystkich częściach Symfonii. Melancholijne rozmarzenie przerywane nielicznymi dźwiękami radości i przechodzące w najwyższe uniesienie miłosne, a także ból, zazdrość, serdeczna tkliwość, łzy pierwszej miłości – oto treść pierwszej części.

Druga część: Bal. Artysta, otoczony gwarem zabawy, podziwia w upojeniu wspaniałości natury. Ale wszędzie – w mieście i na wsi – ściga go obraz ukochanej i odbiera mu spokój...

Trzecia część: Wśród pól. Wieczorem na wsi słyszy artysta z oddali głosy dwóch pasterzy, śpiewających piosenkę górali alpejskich. Ten dialog, okolica, lekki poszum drzew na wietrze, złudne nadzieje wzajemnej miłości – wszystko splata się razem, dając jego sercu nadzwyczajny spokój; W myśli kierujący ku radości. Spodziewa się, że wkrótce nie będzie już samotny... Ale jeśli umiłowana go zwiedzie? Nadzieja i lęk, radosne oczekiwanie i posępne przeczucia wyraża Adagio... W końcu jeden z pasterzy podejmuje znowu swą pieśń, ale drugi mu już nie odpowiada... W oddali grzmi Samotność... Głęboka cisza...

Czwarta część: Droga na miejsce stracenia. Ponieważ artysta przekonał się, że ta, którą uwielbia, nie odwzajemnia jego miłości, nie potrafi go zrozumieć, a nawet jest go niegodna, truje się zażywając opium. Zbyt słaba dawka narkotyku nie zabija go, lecz pogrąża w ciężki sen, pełen straszliwych wizji. Artysta śni, że zamordował ukochaną i skazany na śmierć, prowadzony jest na miejsce stracenia, stając się świadkiem własnej egzekucji. Pochód porusza się przy dźwiękach raz posępnego i dzikiego, to znowu wspaniałego i uroczystego marsza, który miesza się z odgłosami głuchych kroków i brutalnym hałasem tłumu. W zakończeniu marsza, jak ostatnia myśl o ukochanej, rozbrzmiewają pierwsze, takty idee fixe, które u milkną przy ciosie katowskiego topora.

Piąta część: Sabat czarownic. Młody muzyk widzi się pośród zgrai strasznych postaci, czarownic i wszelkiego rodzaju potworów, które zebrały się na jego pogrzebie. Słychać osobliwe hałasy, westchnienia, wycia, świsty, biadania. Melodia ukochanej rozbrzmiewa znowu, ale tym razem w innej postaci groteskowo-tanecznej i trywialnej. To sama wybrana przybywa na sabat czarownic, aby wziąć udział w pogrzebie swej ofiary. Wita ją wrzask radości i diabelskie wycie. Rozpoczyna się ceremonia. Dzwony biją... Jeden chór śpiewa Dies irae, dwa inne powtarzają hymn i parodiują go w sposób groteskowy. W końcu przetacza się taneczny korowód czarownic, a w najdzikszym tumulcie rozbrzmiewa melodia Dies irae.

Symfonia "Harold w Italii" op. 16. W roku 1834 I zachwycony sabatem czarownic w Symfonii fantastycznej Berlioza, zamówił u niego – wpłacając znaczną sumę pieniędzy – I Paganini koncert na altówkę z myślą o sobie jako wykonawcy. Dzieło nie zyskało jednak aprobaty "demonicznego" skrzypka, któremu dawało zbyt mało możliwości wirtuozowskiego popisu. Z tego właśnie koncertu powstała "programowa symfonia" Harold w Italii, gdzie altówka pozostała wiodącym instrumentem, interpretującym przewijający się przez wszystkie cztery części motyw przewodni dzieła, ową berliozowską "idee fixe". Uosabia ona tutaj – podobnie jak w Symfonii fantastycznej – samego autora, który z kolei utożsamiając się z melancholijnym bohaterem poematu Byrona Wędrówki Childe Harolda, dał dźwiękowe wizje, inspirowane swoim trzy letnim pobytem w Italii. I część (Adagio. Allegro) ukazuje romantycznego wędrownika zachwycającego się wspaniałością gór i weselącego się z ich mieszkańcami. II część (Allegretto) to wieczorne spotkanie z pielgrzymami śpiewającymi swoje nabożne pieśni, do których przyłącza się również wzruszony Harold. III część (Allegro assai) jest w zasadzie nastrojową serenadą; śpiewa ją młody mieszkaniec Abruzzów swej ukochanej przy wtórze gitar. W IV części (Allegro frenetico) Harold wpada w ręce rozbójników i ginie. W przeciwieństwie do poprzednich, lirycznych scen rozpętuje teraz kompozytor prawdziwą orgię dźwięków, wśród których przebłyskują motywy z poprzednich części.

UWERTURY Uwertury koncertowe Berlioza – podobnie jak jego symfonie – są już właściwie jakby poematami symfonicznymi; zrezygnował w nich jednakże kompozytor z dokładnego oddawania programu poetyckiego za pomocą dźwięków. Tworząc bardziej ogólnie ujęte muzyczne obrazy charakterystyczne, nawiązał silniej niż w symfoniach do wzorów Beethovenowskich. Z koncertowych uwertur Berlioza: Rob Roy, Waverley, Korsarz, Król Lear i Karnawał rzymski, tylko dwie ostatnie grywane są częściej przez nasze orkiestry symfoniczne.

La Corsare Overture John Barbirolli Halle Orchestra

Louis Hector Berlioz foi um compositor do Romantismo francês...

Louis Hector Berlioz (Côte-Saint-André, 7 de fevereiro de 1803Paris, 8 de março de 1869) foi um compositor do Romantismo francês, conhecido por sua Sinfonia Fantástica (1830) e pela Missa de Requiem (1837)

Biografia Berlioz nasceu a 11 de dezembro de 1803, em Côte-Saint-André, entre Grenoble e Lyon, na França. Seu pai era médico e o jovem Hector foi enviado a Paris para, como o pai, estudar medicina. Berlioz, insatisfeito com a escola de medicina, desistiu do curso para estudar música, contra a vontade de seu pai. O jovem entrou para o conservatório de Paris, para estudar composição.

Desde cedo, o compositor identificou-se com o movimento romântico francês. Entre outros, eram amigos dele os escritores Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo e Honoré de Balzac. Posteriormente, Théophile Gautier escreveria:

"Hector Berlioz parece formar, juntamente com Hugo e Delacroix, a Trindade da Arte Romântica." Seu amor não correspondido pela atriz Henrietta Constance Smithson serviu de inspiração para a composição da Sinfonia Fantástica. No mesmo ano da première desta obra (1830), Berlioz ganhou o Prix de Rome. Ao voltar a Paris, após seus dois anos de estudo em Roma, ele finalmente casou-se com Smithson, quando esta finalmente foi a uma apresentação da Sinfonia Fantástica. Entretanto, após poucos anos, o relacionamento acabou.

Um noivado com Marie Moke, ocorrido na época em que Smithson rejeitou Berlioz, foi rompido quando a mãe de Marie resolveu casá-la com o pianista e fabricante de pianos Camille Pleyel.

Durante sua vida, Berlioz foi mais famoso como regente do que como compositor, ele regularmente viajava para a Alemanha e Inglaterra, para reger óperas e música sinfônica, tanto obras suas quanto de outros compositores.

Hector Berlioz faleceu em 8 de março de 1869 e está sepultado no Cemitério de Montmartre, com suas duas esposas, Harriet Smithson (falecida em 1854) e Marie Recio (falecida em 1862).

 Influências Berlioz era um amante da literatura, e muitas de suas melhores composições são influenciadas por obras literárias. Para compor a Danação de Fausto, Berlioz baseou-se no Fausto, de Goethe; para Haroldo na Itália, baseou-se no Childe Harold, de Byron e, para Benvenuto Cellini, na autobiografia de Cellini. Para a criação de Romeo et Juliette, a base foi a obra, de mesmo nome, de Shakespeare. Para compor sua grande obra, Les Troyens, foi influenciado pela leitura da Eneida, de Virgílio. Para compor sua última ópera, Béatrice et Bénédict, Berlioz preparou um libretto vagamente baseado na peça de Shakespeare, Much Ado about Nothing.

Além de influenciado por obras literárias, Berlioz também admirava a obra de Beethoven (à época, desconhecido na França). A apresentação da Sinfonia Eroica em Paris causou profundas influências na obra de Berlioz. Além de Beethoven, o compositor também admirava Gluck, Weber e Spontini.

 A Sinfonia Fantástica Hector Berlioz, filho de pai médico, foi enviado para Paris para seguir os estudos de Medicina, mas rapidamente decidiu estudar composição, perdendo assim a ajuda financeira da sua família. Apaixonado e dedicado à música, concorreu ao Prémio de Composição de Roma por três vezes, acabando finalmente por ganhar o segundo prémio, em 1830. Aos 25 anos, apaixona-se perdidamente pela actriz irlandesa Harriet Smithson, que interpretou papéis das obras de Shakespeare, como Ophelia ou Juliet. Duas obras de Berlioz foram inspiradas neste seu amor: Symphonie Fantastique e Roméo et Juliette. Berlioz deixou também um importante trabalho teórico - o seu Grand Traité d’Instrumentation et d’Orchestration Modernes (publicado em 1843 e revisto em 1855). Essa sua investigação reflecte-se indubitavelmente nas suas obras sinfónicas, como será focado mais à frente.

A audição da Symphonie Fantastique é acompanhada pelo público com a leitura de um programa, escrito pelo próprio compositor – Episódio na vida de um artista – que relata alguns dos momentos da sua paixão pela actriz. A existência do programa torna unívoca a interpretação da música, esclarece o seu sentido aos ouvintes e explica a sua forma. Foi a primeira obra de música programática puramente instrumental, embora se baseie claramente nos princípios da reforma da ópera de C. W. Gluck (1714-1787), em que se defendia a primazia da transmissão dos afectos do libreto no discurso musical. Aliás, alguns pormenores de instrumentação como as harpas, o corne inglês e os sinos são aqui pela primeira vez utilizados em música sinfónica, apesar de já terem integrado a orquestra na ópera. Para além do facto da sinfonia ter 5 andamentos, de características originais na época, uma outra inovação inserida por Berlioz é o conceito de ideé-fixe, um tema melódico, associado a uma personagem (neste caso a sua amada), que surge de forma recorrente ao longo da obra.

A estreia da Symphonie Fantastique em 1830 em Paris, foi símbolo do início do Romantismo em França. Era a primeira vez que um compositor expunha explicitamente uma experiência pessoal numa obra musical. A expressão do “eu” e do sentimento tornaram-se, a partir daí, importantes pilares da música romântica em toda a Europa. O conceito de música programática ficou também para as gerações futuras, em compositores como Liszt ou os russos do Grupo dos Cinco. Hector Berlioz foi, acima de tudo, um compositor que criou com originalidade, fundando importantes conceitos para o futuro.

"Berlioz in Berlin"  auf Deutsch

Louis Hector Berlioz var en fransk klassisk kompositör i romantikgenren...

Louis Hector Berlioz, född 11 december 1803 i La Côte-Saint-André, Isère, död 8 mars 1869 i Paris, var en fransk klassisk kompositör i romantikgenren. Hans mest kända verk är möjligen Symphonie fantastique uruppförd 1830, samt Grande Messe des morts (Requiem) uruppförd 1837.

Operor  Les Francs-Juges Opera 3 akter, op. 3 Ferrand 26. Maj 1828 Paris, Salle du Conservatoire (endast ouvertyren bevarad)
Benvenuto Cellini opéra semi-seria 2 akter (4 Bilder), op. 23 Armand François Léon de Wailly, Henri Auguste Barbier och Alfred de Vigny, efter Autobiografin Benvenuto Cellini 10. Sept. 1838 Paris, Grand Opéra (Théâtre National de l'Opéra) (1. versionen i 2 akter) 20. Mars 1852 Weimar (2. versionen i 3 akter)
La Damnation de Faust légende dramatique i 4 delar, op. 24 /Fausts Verdammnis Goethes Faust. tragedins första del, övers. av Gérard de Nerval/Almire Gandonnière/Hector Berlioz 6. Dec. 1846 Opéra-Comique Paris (Konsertant uruppförande) 3. Febr. 1894 Monte Carle (Scenuruppförande)
Béatrice et Bénédict Opéra-comique 2 akter libretto av kompositören, efter Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing 9. Aug. 1862 Baden-Baden, Theater am Goetheplatz.
Les Troyens Opera i 5 akter Trojanerna Libretto av Kompositören, efter delar från Aeneiden av Vergilius La Prise de Troie (del 1) Akt I - II Les Troyens à Carthage (del 2) Akt III - V 4. Nov. 1863 Paris, Théâtre-lyrique, 2 delen 7. Dec. 1879 Paris, Théâtre du Châtelet, 1 delen (konsertant), 6. - 7. Dec. 1890 Karlsruhe, del 1 och 2 (1. samlade uppförandet), 3. Maj 1969 Glasgow, Scottish Opera, del 1 och 2 på engelska. 17. Sept. 1969 London, del 1 och 2 på franska.

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Хектор Берлиоз, (11. децембар 1803. - Париз, 8. март 1869.) француски композитор...

Хектор Берлиоз, (11. децембар 1803. - Париз, 8. март 1869.) француски композитор.

Биографија Рођен је у провинцијској породици лекара (отац Анри Берлиоз је био сеоски лекар). По очевој жељи, најпре је студирао медицину. Студије медицине убрзо напушта и од 1825. године студира композицију на Париском конзерваторијуму. Септембра 1827. године упознаје Енглеску глумицу Харијет Смитсон, која му постаје инспирација за прво и највеће ремек дело, Фантастичну Симфонију, а 1832. године и супруга. Афирмирао се више изван домовине као диригент властитих дела, а у Паризу се прочуо као писац оштрих критика и духовитих фељтона.

Покушао је изразити драматску радњу искључиво инструменталним средствима те је на тај начин створио прва модерна оркестарска дела, жанра програмске музике (према којој музика није само комплексан склоп ритмова и звукова, већ она тим звуковима прича и приповеда) То је заправо један оригиналан жанр, назван програмска симфонија, у чијем ће домену убрзо затим и Франц Лист створити једноставачну инструменталну симфонијску поему. Само, Берлиозова програмска симфонија у себе укључује моћан извођачки апарат (оркестар, солисти и хор), а форма се растаче у корист музичке и поетске слободе, док се опсег дела проширује до монументалних димензија. Због тога његова дела нису наилазила на разумевање његових савременика, посебно у Паризу, а и дуго времена после њега, тешко су се пробијала на светској оперској и концертној сцени. За живота је значајније разумевање за своје стваралаштво остварио само у Немачким земљама и Санкт Петерсбургу, где је био топло поздрављен и пред крај живота, награђен.

Најзначајније дело му је „Фантастична симфонија“ у којој приказује средишњи лик увек истом темом (такозвана фиксна идеја), која из става у став доживљава разне преображаје од чезнутљиве, сањалачке мелодије у првом, до изобличене карикатуре у последњем ставу. Написао је темељне приручнике модерне инструментације и дириговања. Најзначајнија су му дела у том домену Наука о инструментацији и Мемоари. После просечног успеха који је 1862. године остварила премијера његове колосалне четворосатне опере Тројанци, Берлиоз се резигнирао, разочарао и више ништа ново није написао до смрти 1869. године. Све је свео на повремене диригентске наступе, читање, медитирање,а 1865 године, објављује своје Мемоаре.

Био је и први велики мајстор модерног симфонијског оркестра, као диригент га вешто уједињујући у комплексну целину, али и делећи на поједине секције унутар целине, остварујући тако веома сложене, вишеслојне палете звучних боја.Будућим генерацијама композитора (али и диригената) оставио је у аманет, да у сваком погледу буду верни, аутентични тумачи својих и туђих музичких дела, саветујући им: Учите се да увек сами диригујете своја дела. Најопснији тумач ваших дела, управо је сам диригент. Све у свему, Берлиоз је био и остао пророчки геније, који је ишао цео један век испред свог времена.

Дела Ектор (Hector) Берлиоз, компоновао је на подручју оркестарске, симфонијске музике, на подручју ораторијумске - духовне и вокалне музике и на пољу опере. Бавио се и списатељским радом, написао је дела Наука о инструментацији и Мемоаре, поред низа новинских чланака, музичких критика и фељтона.

Оркестарска и симфонијска дела  ° Фантастична Симфонија (1830)

° Лелио, програмска симфонија (1831)

„Харолд у Италији“ (1834)
° Римски карневал, увертира (1842)

° Гусар, увертира према Бајроновој поеми, опус 21 (1855)

Вокално - инструментална дела  ° Клеопатра, кантата за сопран и оркестар (1828)

„Реквијем, Велика миса за мртве“ (1837) „Ромео и Јулија“ (1839)
° Посмртна и победоносна симфонија (1840)

„Фаустово проклетство“ (1846) „Te Deum“ (1849) „Христово детињство“, ораторијум у три дела (1854)

Опере „Бенвенуто Челини“, опера у два чина (1842)
° Беатриса и Бенедикт, опера (1856)

„Тројанци“, опера у два дела и пет чинова (1862)
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Hector Berlioz (Côte-Saint-André11 dicembre 1803 – Parigi8 marzo 1869) è stato un compositore francese...

Hector Berlioz (Côte-Saint-André11 dicembre 1803 – Parigi8 marzo 1869) è stato un compositore francese.

Biografia Figlio di un medico d'una certa fama, dopo aver compiuto i suoi studi collegiali Berlioz fu inviato a Parigi per seguire i corsi della scuola di medicina. Sapeva allora, poco di musica, ma aveva un gusto appassionato per quest'arte. Più e più volte aveva supplicato invano i genitori di permettergli di dedicarsi esclusivamente a questa attività, ma sempre inutilmente.
In seno alla città che si chiama ancora la capitale delle arti, era difficile che la passione di Berlioz non si accrescesse invece di sopirsi. Essa esercitò ben presto su di lui un imperio tale che abbandonò i banchi della facoltà per quelli del conservatorio. Irritato dal vedere la sua autorità misconosciuta, suo padre lo privò dei mezzi di sussistenza che gli aveva fornito fino ad allora e Berlioz non ebbe altra risorsa che farsi ammettere come corista al teatro del Ginnasio Drammatico.

La sua vocazione era decisa e la fermezza del suo carattere gli faceva tenere in poco conto le miserie della vita. Seguiva il corso di composizione di Reicha, ma le forme costrette dell'arte che questo maestro gli faceva studiare, non gli ispiravano che disgusto, perché non ne comprendeva il fine. Ben presto, oppresso dai gioghi che queste gli imponevano, uscì dalla scuola in cui aveva appena intravisto qualcosa del procedimento dell'arte del comporre. Libero infine di far di testa sua, risolse fermamente di non avere più alcun maestro al di fuori della propria esperienza.
Pieno così di risoluzione, ma senza avere ancora che delle vaghe idee su quello che intendeva fare, tentò dapprima con una messa per orchestra che fu eseguita nella chiesa di San Rocco e successivamente in quella di Sant'Eustachio.
Essa parve inintelligibile tanto ai musicisti che l'eseguirono, quanto a coloro che l'ascoltarono. Convinto tuttavia della realtà della sua avventura musicale, Berlioz non si lasciò fuorviare dalle lodi compiacenti che la sua opera suscitò, e si rimise al lavoro con rinnovato ardore.

Era persuaso che la musica dovesse avere un soggetto, un programma e che il trionfo dell'arte è di esprimere questo programma mediante effetti pittoreschi, sia con il soccorso della voce, sia con gli strumenti soli. Tutta l'opera di Berlioz è il prodotto della sua volontà mirante a realizzare questo progetto.
I primi risultati di questo lavoro furono l'ouverture di Waverley e un'altra intitolata Les Francs-Juges. Le due ouverture furono eseguite dapprima nei concerti che si davano nell'antica sala di Waux-Hall, poi in un concerto tenuto dallo stesso Berlioz il 26 maggio 1828, nella sala del conservatorio. In quell'occasione, fece ascoltare anche il Credo della sua prima messa e una marche des Mages allant à la crèche.

A queste prime opere seguì quello che è ritenuto il suo capolavoro, la Symphonie fantastique (Sinfonia fantastica): cinque movimenti che hanno per soggetto un episodio della vita di un artista con un' idée fixe costituita dal leitmotiv del tema dell'amore.

Il primo novembre 1829, le stesse composizioni furono udite di nuovo in un concerto nel quale l'autore fece eseguire una nuova opera che aveva per titolo: Concerts des Sylphes.
Dal 1826, Berlioz era rientrato nel novero degli allievi del conservatorio, che si chiamava allora Scuola reale di musica, e seguiva le lezioni di Leseur per lo stile libero, poiché aveva bisogno di un protettore in vista del grande concorso di composizione. Questo protettore gli era tanto più necessario in quanto Cherubini era mal disposto verso di lui e mostrava una vera antipatia per la sua musica. Più volte Berlioz aveva sostenuto l'esame preparatorio di questo concorso senza esservi ammesso. Infine la sua perseveranza la ebbe vinta sugli ostacoli e nel concorso del 1830 gli fu assegnato il primo premio per la composizione di una cantata della quale Sardanapalo era il soggetto.
Divenuto pensionato dello stato, come vincitore del concorso, si recò in Italia per obbedire al regolamento, benché avesse in odio la musica italiana. Abbreviò il suo soggiorno a Roma e a Napoli più che poté e, diciotto mesi dopo la sua partenza, ritornò a Parigi riportando una ouverture del Re Lear e una sorta di sinfonia che si poteva considerare un seguito di un episode de la vie d'un artiste, un misto di cori e brani strumentali. Berlioz si credeva riformatore dell'arte e combatté la sua battaglia con le armi della stampa. Dal 1828, aveva debuttato su un giornale di quei tempi, il Correspondant, e vi aveva fatto pubblicare degli articoli sulle sinfonie di Beethoven che gli artisti e gli amatori di Parigi avevano appena sentito per la prima volta, grazie all'organizzazione della società dei concerti. Articoli questi che furono notati.

Di volta in volta, Berlioz scrisse per la Revue Europeenne o per il Courrier de l'Europe, fino a che, la Gazzetta musicale di Parigi, fondata nel 1834, non gli aprì le sue colonne. Ben presto, poi, a questo onore si aggiunse quello di scrivere per il Journal des débats i cui proprietari divennero i suoi protettori in ogni circostanza.

Nel 1834 compose la sinfonia Aroldo In Italia e la messa funebre, scritta per le esequie del generale Damrémont e che fu eseguita nella chiesa de l' Hôtel des Invalides il 5 dicembre 1837, la sinfonia drammatica di Romeo e Giulietta per soli e coro eseguita nella sala del conservatorio il 24 novembre 1839 la sinfonia funebre e trionfale per armonia militare eseguita per l'inaugurazione della colonna di luglio nella piazza della Bastiglia, e infine l'ouverture del carnevale romano, composizioni che furono tutte esaltate dai giornali e dai critici. Un solo insuccesso turbò Berlioz: l'opera Benvenuto Cellini, dramma in due atti rappresentato il 3 settembre 1838 fu un fiasco completo. Dopo aver dato molti concerti a Parigi, destinati in maggior parte all'esecuzione di sue opere, Berlioz concepì il disegno di percorrere l'Europa per far uscire la sua musica dal circolo ristretto dei suoi amici ed ammiratori e di dargli, se possibile, il privilegio della popolarità.
La sua prima escursione fu a Bruxelles, dove diede due concerti, poi la Germania del nord nel 1843 e si produsse in concerti a Berlino, Amburgo, a Lipsia, a Weimar e a Stoccarda. Due anni dopo visitò Vienna, l'Ungheria, Praga e la Slesia. Nel 1847 si recò in Russia e fece eseguire le sue principali opere a Riga, San Pietroburgo e a Mosca.

Di ritorno a Parigi fu chiamato a Londra per dirigere l'orchestra di Dury-Lane per tutta la stagione del 1848 e nello stesso anno fece un secondo viaggio in Boemia.
Altri viaggi e altre composizioni si susseguiranno nella vita di Berlioz, fino alla sua morte, avvenuta nel 1869.

 Harold en Italie - Harold aux montagnes ( 2/2 )


埃克托·路易·柏辽兹Hector Louis Berlioz1803年12月11日1869年3月8日),又译白辽士法国浪漫派作曲家,以1830年写的《幻想交响曲》为名。















A Documentary Extract from the making of Rin English

Louis Hector Berlioz- compositor francés y figura destacada en el desarrollo del romanticismo...

Louis Hector Berlioz (11 de diciembre de 1803 – † 8 de marzo de 1869), compositor francés y figura destacada en el desarrollo del romanticismo, es muy conocido por su Sinfonía fantástica, estrenada en 1830, el Réquiem, estrenado en 1837, y su extraordinaria utilización de la orquesta sinfónica que incluía cuatro grupos de metales "antifonales".


 Berlioz nació en Francia en La Côte-Saint-André, entre Lyon y Grenoble. Su padre era médico (fue un aficionado a la acupuntura) y envió al joven Héctor a París a estudiar medicina. Berlioz quedó horrorizado por el proceso de disección y a pesar de la desaprobación de su padre, abandonó la carrera para estudiar música. Asistió al Conservatorio de París, donde estudió composición y ópera.

El movimiento romántico Rápidamente se sintió identificado con el movimiento romántico francés. Entre sus amigos estaban los escritores Alejandro Dumas, Victor Hugo y Honoré de Balzac. Más tarde, Théophile Gautier escribiría:

Me parece que Héctor Berlioz, con Victor Hugo y Eugène Delacroix, forman la Santísima Trinidad del arte romántico.

Se dice que Berlioz había sido un romántico innato, que experimentaba intensas emociones desde la más tierna infancia, por ejemplo cuando leía pasajes de Virgilio, y más tarde en una serie de aventuras amorosas.

A los 23 años comenzó se enamoró de la actriz irlandesa shakesperiana Henrietta "Harriett" Constance Smithson.

 Smithson las cartas de Berlioz le parecieron tan exageradamente apasionadas que le rechazó por completo. Sin embargo fue la musa inspiradora de la sinfonía que Berlioz estaba preparando en esa época.

En 1830, esta Sinfonía fantástica generada por esas emociones fue considerada "asombrosa y vívida", pero Smithson no quiso asistir al debut en París. En aquel momento la naturaleza autobiográfica de esta obra de música programática (que requería que los oyentes leyeran un folleto con su "argumento" antes del concierto) se consideró con justicia sensacional e innovadora.

En 1830 (el mismo año del debut de la sinfonía) Berlioz ganó el Premio de Roma, la beca más importante del mundo de la música.

Debido al rechazo de Smithson, Berlioz se unió sentimentalmente a Marie Moke. Pero este romance fue terminado abruptamente por la madre de Moke, quien la casó con el pianista y fabricante de pianos Camille Ignaz Pleyel.

Berlioz, que en esa época ya estaba becado en Roma, planeó cabalgar hasta París, disfrazarse de sirvienta doméstica, matar a Moke, a su madre y a su novio pianista y suicidarse. Llegó a viajar un par de miles de kilómetros hasta Niza, hasta que fue persuadido de abandonar la idea.

Retorno a París y primer matrimonio  Después de su retorno a París —luego de dos años becado estudiando ópera italiana en Roma—, se enteró de que Harriet Smithson finalmente había asistido a una presentación de la Sinfonía Fantástica. Ella rápidamente se dio cuenta de que era una clara alegoría de las apasionadas cartas que Berlioz le había escrito. Pronto se casaron, pero pocos años después, desilusionados, se separaron.

Durante su vida, Berlioz fue más famoso como director de orquesta que como compositor. Periódicamente daba ciclos de conciertos en Alemania e Inglaterra, donde dirigía óperas y música sinfónica, tanto suya como de otros compositores.

Varias veces se encontró con el compositor y virtuoso del violín Nicolo Paganini. De acuerdo con las memorias de Berlioz, Paganini le ofreció 20.000 francos después de haber visto una representación en vivo de Harold en Italia obra basada en el Childe Harold (Pequeño Aroldo) de Byron. La idea era que Berlioz le vendiera esa obra (una pieza para viola) para que Paganini la pudiera tocar como propia.

Hector Berlioz falleció en París el 8 de marzo de 1869. Está enterrado en el cementerio de Montmartre con sus dos esposas, Harriet Smithson (+ 1854) y Marie Recio (+ 1862).

Influencia musical  Berlioz fue muy influenciado por la literatura. En su Sinfonía fantástica, se inspiró en la obra de Thomas de Quincey, Confesiones de un inglés comedor de opio. Para La maldición de Fausto se basó en la traducción hecha por Gérard de Nerval sobre el Fausto de Goethe; Harold en Italia, está basada en Las peregrinaciones de Childe Harold, de Byron; Benvenuto Cellini, sobre la autobiografía de Cellini; Romeo y Julieta, obviamente en la obra de Shakespeare, Romeo y Julieta; su magnum opus Les Troyens se inspira en La Eneida de Virgilio; la comedia Béatrice et Bénédict sobre otra obra de Shakespeare, Mucho ruido y pocas nueces.

Aparte de sus influencias literarias, Berlioz se fijó e imitó mucho a Beethoven, en aquel tiempo desconocido en Francia. También mostró reverencia a los trabajos de Gluck, Mozart, Étienne Méhul, Carl Maria von Weber y Gaspare Spontini.

Trabajos literarios Artículo principal: Catálogo de obras de Berlioz Su ensayo pedagógico Gran tratado de la instrumentación y la orquestación moderna, estableció su reputación como maestro de la instrumentación.

Mahler y Strauss estudiaron detenidamente ese tratado que también sirvió como modelo para el libro de Nikolái Rimski-Kórsakov, quien había asistido como estudiante de música a los conciertos que Berlioz dirigió en Moscú y San Petersburgo. El crítico Norman Lebrecht escribió:

Antes de las visitas de Berlioz, prácticamente no había música académica rusa. El suyo fue el paradigma que inspiró ese género. Chaikovski, para su Tercera sinfonía, "tomó" de la Sinfonía fantástica como si de una tienda de golosinas se tratara. Módest Músorgski murió con una copia del tratado de Berlioz en su cama.


Louis Hector Berlioz was een Frans componist.

Louis Hector Berlioz (La Côte-Saint-André, 11 december 1803Parijs, 8 maart 1869) was een Frans componist. Hij was een belangrijk en vernieuwend vertegenwoordiger van de Franse romantiek. Daarnaast was Berlioz actief als muziekcriticus en dirigent.

Vroege jaren Hector Berlioz was de zoon van een plattelandsdokter. Hij kreeg in zijn geboorteplaats (gelegen tussen Lyon en Grenoble) muzieklessen van zijn vader. Op zijn twaalfde had hij zijn eerste werkelijk muzikale ervaring toen hij tijdens zijn eerste communie het meisjeskoor hoorde zingen. In hetzelfde jaar werd hij verliefd op een meisje uit de streek, Estelle Duboeuf, dat later opnieuw een rol in zijn leven zou spelen.

Berlioz werd in 1821 naar Parijs gestuurd om er geneeskunde te studeren. Maar hij kwam er zo onder de indruk van de opera, dat hij tegen de wens van zijn ouders in besloot componist te worden. Vooral de werken van Gluck waren voor hem een openbaring. Gluck zou zijn leven lang een idool blijven.

Berlioz nam privélessen bij Jean-François Lesueur, en wist in zijn overmoed een zelfgecomponeerde mis opgevoerd te krijgen, die hij later probeerde te vernietigen. In 1991 is het werk op de orgelgalerij van de Carolus Borromeuskerk in Antwerpen teruggevonden. Toen Berlioz in 1826 wilde meedingen naar de Prix de Rome kwam hij niet eens door de voorronde.

Wijs geworden schreef hij zich in aan het conservatorium, waar hij les kreeg van Lesueur en Antonin Reicha. In deze tijd ontdekte hij achtereenvolgens de werken van Shakespeare, Beethoven en Goethe, die allen een grote invloed op hem zouden uitoefenen. En hij werd hopeloos verliefd op de Ierse toneelspeelster en Shakespeare-vertolkster Harriet Smithson. Zijn ongelukkige passie voor haar inspireerde hem in 1830 tot het schrijven van zijn Symphonie fantastique en een minder bekend vervolg daarop, Lélio ou le retour à la vie.

Jaren dertig In 1830 won Berlioz de Prix de Rome en hij verbleef aansluitend anderhalf jaar in Rome. Hij verveelde zich daar vreselijk, aangezien er weinig te beleven viel op muziekgebied. Maar de herinneringen aan Italië kwamen hem van pas toen hij een paar jaar later zijn symfonie met altviool Harold in Italië schreef. Deze symfonie ontstond dankzij een opdracht van Paganini, die het stuk echter afwees toen hij merkte dat hij er niet voldoende in kon schitteren als virtuoos. Later zou hij Berlioz alsnog zijn bewondering laten blijken met een gift van 20.000 franc.

In 1831 vertrok Berlioz vanuit Rome naar Parijs met twee pistolen en een flesje gif. Hij had gehoord dat zijn toenmalige verloofde, Camille Moke, achter zijn rug om getrouwd was, en hij had zich voorgenomen Camille, haar moeder en zichzelf te vermoorden. Hij kwam echter niet verder dan Nice, waar zijn woede bekoelde en waar hij volgens eigen zeggen de twintig mooiste dagen van zijn leven doorbracht.

Na veel avontuurlijke verwikkelingen huwde hij in 1833 Harriet Smithson. Zij kregen een zoon, Louis, maar het huwelijk zou snel op een mislukking uitlopen. Nadat Harriet een been had gebroken kwam het nooit meer goed met haar carrière. Bovendien was ze erg jaloers van aard, en in haar frustratie greep zij steeds vaker naar de fles. Haar gezondheid ging zienderogen achteruit.

Om zijn composities uitgevoerd te krijgen besloot Berlioz zich toe te leggen op het dirigeren. Hij ontwikkelde zich tot een van de beste dirigenten van zijn tijd. Intussen wist hij in zijn onderhoud te voorzien door het schrijven van muziekkritieken. Ook daarin blonk hij uit, al joeg hij met zijn scherpe pen heel wat mensen tegen zich in het harnas. Later zou Berlioz een klein vast inkomen verdienen als bibliothecaris van het Conservatoire in Parijs, de enige officiële functie die hij heeft bekleed.

Een grote staatsopdracht kreeg hij toen hij in 1837 uitgenodigd werd een grootschalig requiem te schrijven. De uitvoering in de Invalides werd een groot succes. Maar zijn eerste opera, Benvenuto Cellini uit 1838, gebaseerd op de autobiografie van de edelsmid uit de Renaissance, draaide vanwege het onconventionele karakter uit op een groot fiasco.

Berlioz zou hierna in de Parijse opera geen voet meer aan de grond krijgen, maar dankzij de genoemde gift van Paganini kon hij zich toch weer wijden aan het componeren. Shakespeare inspireerde hem tot het schrijven van de symfonie met koor Roméo et Juliette uit 1839, die redelijk succesvol was.

Jaren dertig In 1830 won Berlioz de Prix de Rome en hij verbleef aansluitend anderhalf jaar in Rome. Hij verveelde zich daar vreselijk, aangezien er weinig te beleven viel op muziekgebied. Maar de herinneringen aan Italië kwamen hem van pas toen hij een paar jaar later zijn symfonie met altviool Harold in Italië schreef. Deze symfonie ontstond dankzij een opdracht van Paganini, die het stuk echter afwees toen hij merkte dat hij er niet voldoende in kon schitteren als virtuoos. Later zou hij Berlioz alsnog zijn bewondering laten blijken met een gift van 20.000 franc.

In 1831 vertrok Berlioz vanuit Rome naar Parijs met twee pistolen en een flesje gif. Hij had gehoord dat zijn toenmalige verloofde, Camille Moke, achter zijn rug om getrouwd was, en hij had zich voorgenomen Camille, haar moeder en zichzelf te vermoorden. Hij kwam echter niet verder dan Nice, waar zijn woede bekoelde en waar hij volgens eigen zeggen de twintig mooiste dagen van zijn leven doorbracht.

Na veel avontuurlijke verwikkelingen huwde hij in 1833 Harriet Smithson. Zij kregen een zoon, Louis, maar het huwelijk zou snel op een mislukking uitlopen. Nadat Harriet een been had gebroken kwam het nooit meer goed met haar carrière. Bovendien was ze erg jaloers van aard, en in haar frustratie greep zij steeds vaker naar de fles. Haar gezondheid ging zienderogen achteruit.

Om zijn composities uitgevoerd te krijgen besloot Berlioz zich toe te leggen op het dirigeren. Hij ontwikkelde zich tot een van de beste dirigenten van zijn tijd. Intussen wist hij in zijn onderhoud te voorzien door het schrijven van muziekkritieken. Ook daarin blonk hij uit, al joeg hij met zijn scherpe pen heel wat mensen tegen zich in het harnas. Later zou Berlioz een klein vast inkomen verdienen als bibliothecaris van het Conservatoire in Parijs, de enige officiële functie die hij heeft bekleed.

Een grote staatsopdracht kreeg hij toen hij in 1837 uitgenodigd werd een grootschalig requiem te schrijven. De uitvoering in de Invalides werd een groot succes. Maar zijn eerste opera, Benvenuto Cellini uit 1838, gebaseerd op de autobiografie van de edelsmid uit de Renaissance, draaide vanwege het onconventionele karakter uit op een groot fiasco.

Berlioz zou hierna in de Parijse opera geen voet meer aan de grond krijgen, maar dankzij de genoemde gift van Paganini kon hij zich toch weer wijden aan het componeren. Shakespeare inspireerde hem tot het schrijven van de symfonie met koor Roméo et Juliette uit 1839, die redelijk succesvol was.

Jaren dertig In 1830 won Berlioz de Prix de Rome en hij verbleef aansluitend anderhalf jaar in Rome. Hij verveelde zich daar vreselijk, aangezien er weinig te beleven viel op muziekgebied. Maar de herinneringen aan Italië kwamen hem van pas toen hij een paar jaar later zijn symfonie met altviool Harold in Italië schreef. Deze symfonie ontstond dankzij een opdracht van Paganini, die het stuk echter afwees toen hij merkte dat hij er niet voldoende in kon schitteren als virtuoos. Later zou hij Berlioz alsnog zijn bewondering laten blijken met een gift van 20.000 franc.

In 1831 vertrok Berlioz vanuit Rome naar Parijs met twee pistolen en een flesje gif. Hij had gehoord dat zijn toenmalige verloofde, Camille Moke, achter zijn rug om getrouwd was, en hij had zich voorgenomen Camille, haar moeder en zichzelf te vermoorden. Hij kwam echter niet verder dan Nice, waar zijn woede bekoelde en waar hij volgens eigen zeggen de twintig mooiste dagen van zijn leven doorbracht.

Na veel avontuurlijke verwikkelingen huwde hij in 1833 Harriet Smithson. Zij kregen een zoon, Louis, maar het huwelijk zou snel op een mislukking uitlopen. Nadat Harriet een been had gebroken kwam het nooit meer goed met haar carrière. Bovendien was ze erg jaloers van aard, en in haar frustratie greep zij steeds vaker naar de fles. Haar gezondheid ging zienderogen achteruit.

Om zijn composities uitgevoerd te krijgen besloot Berlioz zich toe te leggen op het dirigeren. Hij ontwikkelde zich tot een van de beste dirigenten van zijn tijd. Intussen wist hij in zijn onderhoud te voorzien door het schrijven van muziekkritieken. Ook daarin blonk hij uit, al joeg hij met zijn scherpe pen heel wat mensen tegen zich in het harnas. Later zou Berlioz een klein vast inkomen verdienen als bibliothecaris van het Conservatoire in Parijs, de enige officiële functie die hij heeft bekleed.

Een grote staatsopdracht kreeg hij toen hij in 1837 uitgenodigd werd een grootschalig requiem te schrijven. De uitvoering in de Invalides werd een groot succes. Maar zijn eerste opera, Benvenuto Cellini uit 1838, gebaseerd op de autobiografie van de edelsmid uit de Renaissance, draaide vanwege het onconventionele karakter uit op een groot fiasco.

Berlioz zou hierna in de Parijse opera geen voet meer aan de grond krijgen, maar dankzij de genoemde gift van Paganini kon hij zich toch weer wijden aan het componeren. Shakespeare inspireerde hem tot het schrijven van de symfonie met koor Roméo et Juliette uit 1839, die redelijk succesvol was.

Behalve als componist wordt Berlioz ook gewaardeerd als schrijver. Hij schreef vele artikelen over muziek in verschillende bladen. Dat zorgde voor een vaste bron van inkomsten, maar zijn scherpe pen, dikwijls gedoopt in zwavelzuur, leverde hem ook een hoop vijanden op. Van 1835 tot 1863 was hij vaste muziekcriticus van het Journal des débats, de meest invloedrijke krant van Frankrijk. Daarnaast schreef hij vooral voor de Revue et gazette musicale de Paris.

Zijn beste en meest humoristische muziekkritische artikelen bundelde hij in Les soirées de l'orchestre (1852), Les grotesques de la musique (1859) en A travers chants (1862). Het meest lezenswaard is de eerstgenoemde bundel (Nederlandse vertaling: Avonden met het orkest, 2006). Het is een bonte verzameling verhalen, anekdotes en satires die samen een zeer levendig beeld geven van het muziekleven in de negentiende eeuw. Zijn leerboek Traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration (1843) heeft veel invloed gehad op latere generaties componisten.

Zijn zeer onderhoudende Mémoires (1870), die pas na zijn dood werden gepubliceerd, zijn ook in het Nederlands vertaald en worden niet alleen in de muziek maar in de gehele literatuur als klassieker beschouwd. Het boek is overigens geen standaard autobiografie maar meer een verzameling van brieven en ander (veelal eerder gepubliceerd) werk; het schetst een prachtig beeld van de romantiek door de ogen van een man die hier een centrale rol in speelde. Acht jaar lang is de componist bezig geweest met het schrijven van deze levensherinneringen.

Hector Berlioz a fost un compozitor, scriitor şi critic francez...

Hector Berlioz (n. 11 decembrie 1803, La Côte-Saint-André, Isère, Franţa - d. 8 martie 1869, Paris) a fost un compozitor, scriitor şi critic francez.

A avut o contribuţie importantă în conturarea romantismului francez. Contribuţia lui constă în promovarea unei noi estetici muzicale, care presupune existenţa unor mijloace expresive. Dezvoltarea orchestrei simfonice vine în întâmpinarea gustului pentru grandios al lui Berlioz, relevat prin 4 tipuri procedurale: forţa sonoră, exploatarea efectelor timbrale, divizarea partidei instrumentale şi mărirea numărului de instrumente (împreună cu preocuparea pentru stereofonie).

Hector Berlioz a fost şi autorul „Tratatului de instrumentaţie”, care prezintă preocuparea romanticilor pentru timbrul instrumentelor, ca mijloc de exprimare nuanţată a sensibilităţilor. Berlioz inaugurează seria dirijorilor cu baghetă din secolul XIX.

Din punct de vedere compoziţional, el creează lucrări instrumentale cu un program declarat şi explicat, sau numai direcţionat de titluri, cu forme noi, care evoluează dinspre simfonie către operă

Title Text.

Louis Hector Berlioz (11. joulukuuta 1803 La Côte-Saint-André – 8. maaliskuuta 1869 Pariisi) oli ranskalainen säveltäjä...

Louis Hector Berlioz (11. joulukuuta 1803 La Côte-Saint-André – 8. maaliskuuta 1869 Pariisi) oli ranskalainen säveltäjä

Vuonna 1821 Berlioz lähti Pariisiin harjoittamaan lääketieteen opintoja isänsä mieliksi, mutta hieman myöhemmin, vuoden opintojen jälkeen hän kuitenkin siirtyi takaisin musiikkiin, ja lähti Pariisin konservatorioon opiskelemaan musiikkia. Hän kävi ahkeraan oopperassa, joten lähinnä tämän ansiosta pääsi konservatoriossa Lesueurin luokalle ja opiskeli myös muutaman muun opettajan, Reichan ja Cherubun hoivissa, jotka yrittivät hillitä hänen itsepäistä luonnettaan. Kuitenkin Berliozia voidaan vallankumouksellisten musiikkinäkemysten sekä viralliseen opetukseen kyllästyneenä pitää pitkälle itseoppineena säveltäjänä. Tärkeimpiä opettajia olivatkin Beethoven ja Weber, joiden musiikin arvon Berlioz ymmärsikin aikalaisiaan nopeammin.

 Ensimmäiset sävellykset Berlioz loi ensimmäisen partituurinsaHuit Scenes de Faust” vuonna 1828 hänen ollessa 26-vuotias. Hän ei kuitenkaan ollut tyytyväinen teokseensa, vaan yritti vetää se pois julkisuudesta. 18 vuotta myöhemmin hän kuitenkin käytti sen aineistoa eräässä draamaliisessa legendassa eli ”La Damnation de Faust”, Faustin tuomio. Berliozin musiikkiopinnot aiheuttivat välirikon hänen perheensä kanssa. Saadakseen vanhempansa vakuuttumaan valitsemastaan urasta, hän kilpaili neljä kertaa Rooman-palkinnosta, jonka viimein voitti vuonna 1830. Samana vuonna Berlioz rakastui Harriet Smithsoniin, irlantilaiseen näyttelijättäreen.

Rakkaus oli epätoivoinen ja rakkaus näyttelijättäreen oli ajaa Berliozin mielipuolisuuden rajoille, mutta tämä sai kuitenkin teoksensa, kantaatin ”Sardanapale” (kantaatti tarkoittaa moniosaista säestyksellistä kuoroteosta) valmiiksi ja voitti Rooma-palkintonsa heinäkuussa keskellä vallankumousta. Harriet Smithsonin kautta Berlioz löysi mm. William Shakespearen ohella eurooppalaisen romanttisen liikkeen keskeisiä innoittajia. Samaan aikaan hän myös viimeisteli sävellyksen "Symphonie Fantastique", jonka kantaesitys oli joulukuussa. Tämän teki hänen uralleen ja musiikkinsa tulevaisuudelle tärkeäksi Franz Lisztin läsnäolo. Vaikka Berlioz oli enemmän omistautunut musiikille, kriitikon uransa hän oli aloittanut jo vuonna 1823, 21-vuotiaana.

 Rakkaus Berliozin lähtiessä Italiaan oli suhde perheeseen jälleen kunnossa. Berlioz oli ollut kihloissa erään lahjakkaan pianistin, Marie Moken, kanssa. Hän vietti seuraavat 18 kuukautta Italiassa, tutustui uusiin ystäviin, kulutti paljon aikaa mietiskelyyn, teki muistiinpanoja ja sävelsi siellä muutamia melodioita, joita myöhemmin käyttikin. Hän tunsi silti ajan menneen hukkaan sävellystyön kannalta. Berliozin morsian purki kihlauksen ja avioitui rikkaan pianotehtailijan, Camille Pleyelin kanssa, ja tämän vuoksi Berlioz lähti takaisin Ranskaan lohdutusta etsimään. Noin vuoden ajan hän työskenteli sävellysten parissa ja sai aikaan muutaman alkusoiton, toinen niistä ”Le Roi Lear”, Kuningas Lear.

 Avioliitto Vuoden 1833 alussa Berlioz rakastui uudelleen Harriet Smithsoniin ja he avioituivat hetkeä myöhemmin. Vuonna 1834, 42-vuotiaana, Berlioz kirjoitti sinfonian ”Requiem”. Se oli alun perin omistettu 1830 vallankumouksen sankarien muistolle, mutta sittemmin eräälle ranskalaisille Algerian valloitussodassa kaatuneelle kenraalille. Se koki huomattavan menestyksen kantaesityksessään vuonna 1837 ja toi Berliozille sekä kunniaa että vihamiehiä. Jo sitä säveltäessään vuonna 1836 Berlioz oli aloittanut oopperan ”Benvenuto Cellini”. Sitä kirjoittivat muutkin, kuten Auguste Barbier ja Vigny. Berlioz sai lisää julkisuutta sinfonialla ”Symphonie funébre et triomphale”, joka oli tarkoitettu esitettäväksi ulkosalla ja siksi kirjoitettu sotilasorkesterille. Sitä ihaili myös Wagner, joka tuolloin oli Pariisissa. Samana vuonna Berlioz loi myös toisen sinfonian, ”Roméo et Juliette” eli ”Romeo ja Julia”. Tämä nousi myös kuuluisuuteen ja pääosin tämän sinfonian myötä vuodet 18301840 olivat erittäin antoisia ja tuotteliaita.

 Musiikillinen matka Berlioz matkusteli paljon ympäri Eurooppaa, vuodesta 1842 lähtien. Hän kävi mm. Wienissä, Englannissa, Moskovassa, Budapestin- ja Venäjän kaupungeissa, siellä sävellykset tuottivat ajoittain suurta innostusta. 25-vuoden aikana Berlioz levitti ajatuksiaan orkesterista ja draamallisesta sinfoniasta (sana draama tarkoittaa tässä tapauksessa näytelmällistä sinfoniaa). Koko tämän kiertueen aikana Berlioz tuotti uusia sävellyksiä ja jatkoi työtään kriitikkona ja musiiikkikirjailijana. Kaikkialla hänellä oli niin kannattajia että vihamiehiä. Hän toi vuonna 1843 julkisuuteen lopulta lopullisen version työstä ” Traité d´Instrumentation et d´ Orchestarion” ja myöhemmin vuonna 1856Art du Chef d´ Orchestre”.

 Hedelmällinen kausi Vuonna 1846 hän muokkasi uudelleen jo mainitun nuoruuden-teoksensa ”Huit Scénes de Faustin” mutta sävellys ei tuottanut tulosta ja sai viileän vastaanoton, Berliozin oli pakko lainata rahaa eräältä ihailijaltaan. Hän matkusti Venäjälle, jossa hänen konserteillaan oli menestystä. Vallankumouksen aikana vuonna 1848 Berlioz oleskeli Lontoossa, ja valloitti yleisöään myös sillä, ettei esittänyt omaa musiikkiaan. Hän teki myös uuden teoksen, ”Te Deum”. Tämän jälkeen Berlioz lähti takaisin Ranskaan vuotta myöhemmin ja perusti siellä orkesterin ja sävelsi siellä kaksi laulukokoelmaa kaksoiskuorolle ja kolmelle kuorolle.

 Samana vuonna Berlioz palasi Lontooseen lähinnä Ranskan poliittisen tilanteen vuoksi. Liszt oli johtanut Saksassa ”Benvenuto Cellinin” ja se koki suuren suosion Tämän rohkaisemana Berlioz uskalsi esityttää oopperan Lontoossa vuonna 1853, mutta jälleen kerran esitys joutui sabotaasin kohteeksi. Kaksikymmentä seuraavaa vuotta jatkuivat miltei samankaltasina, Berlioz sävelsi ja esitti teoksiaan. Pariisissa vastaanotto oli välinpitämätön ja jopa yleisö oli jopa vihamielinen. Ulkomailla sävellykset taas nousivat suureen suosioon. Vuonna 1854 teos ”L’Enfance du Christ” sai Pariisissa kylläkin myönteisen vastaanoton sekä innokkaita kannattajia. Seuraavana vuonna hän johti ”Te Deumissa” ja alkoi säveltää oopperaa ”Les Troyens” ruhtinatar Caroline de Sayn-Wittgensteinin kehotuksesta. Troijalaisiin hän valoi muistojaan, vaelluusvuotensa Italiassa, Shakespeare-opintonsa ja etenkin suuren rakkautensa ainoaan poikaansa, koska tästä sävellyksestä oli määrä tulla hänen musiikillinen testamenttinsa.

Kuolema Berlioz uskoi, että hänen tuotteliaisuutensa oli jo ehtymässä, vaikka hän oli Ranskan akatemian jäsen, konservatorion kirjastonhoitaja, tunnettu kirjoistaan sekä artikkeleistaan ja pienten nuorten muusikkojen esikuva. Musiikkitestamenttiinkin tuli kuitenkin lisäys, Belioz sävelsi viimeiseksi suurteokseksi jääneen oopperan,”Béatrice et Bénédict” jonka kantaesitys oli vuonna 1862, jolloin Berlioz itse toimi kapellimestarina. Erään arvostelijan mielestä tämä oli herkkä ja hienostunein oopperakomedia, mitä oli kirjoitettu sitten Mozartin päivien. Kolme vuotta myöhemmin, vuonna 1865 Berlioz menetti rakkaan poikansa. Vuonna 1867 hänellä oli vielä voimia lähteä Venäjän kiertueelle. Kaksi vuotta myöhemmin, 8.3.1869 Berlioz kuoli sydänkohtaukseen Pariisissa 66-vuotiaana.

 Teokset Berliozin tuotanto käsittää vain keskimäärin nelisenkymmentä teosta, mutta vaikka niitä on vähänlaisesti, on jokainen sävellys persoonallisen ajattelun ainutkertainen ja yksilöllinen ilmentymä. Berliozia voidaan pitää ensimmäisenä suurena eurooppalaisena romanttisena musiiikkitaiteilijana, hänen sanotaan olevan romantikon prototyyppiä. Berlioz löysi jo nuorena Carl Maria von Weberin ja silloin hyvin vähän soitetun Beethovenin, jonka partituureja hän tutki hyvin kiihkeästi, tunkeutui Beethovenin ajatusmaailmaan ihan viimeisiä jousikvartettoja myöten, joka niihin aikoihin oli hyvin epätavallista. Innoittajia olivat myös Shakespeare ja Goethe. Shakespeare avasikin Berliozille uuden maailman.

Berlioz ymmärsi musiikin mahdollisuudet uuden romanttisen tuntemistavan välineenä. Vaikka Berlioz oli musiikinhistorian mestarillisimpia orkesterin käyttäjiä, on häntä kuitenkin usein syytetty liiasta mammuttimaisuudesta eli orkestraalisesta mekastuksesta. Berlioz ei kuitenkaan välittänyt, vaan vastaili useimmiten näin: ”Ennakkoluulojen mukaan isot orkesterit ovat meluisia, mutta jos ne ovat kokoonpanoltaan oikeanlaiset, hyvin johdetut, ja jos ne soittavat kunnon musiikkia, oikea termi on voimallinen”. Syytökset johtuivat ainakin Berliozin vaativuudesta kokoonpanossa, esimerkiksi ”Requiemissä”, merkittävässä kirkkomusiikkiteoksessaan hän vaati kaksisataapäisen kuoron lisäksi 190 soittajan orkesteria, sekä 110 jousisoittajan lisäksi kirkkotilan neljään kulmaan sijoitettiin vaskiyhtyeet sekä kahdeksan patarumpuparia. Nämä suurisuuntaiset vaatimukset olivat otollinen aihe lukuisille pilapiirroksille.

Berlioz oli alusta alkaen kypsä taiteilija ja tiensä tunteva säveltäjä. Tämän huomaa mm. varhaisesta suurteoksesta ”Huit scénes de Faust" (kahdeksan kohtausta Faustista) joka oli musiikinhistorian vaikuttavimpia esikoisteoksia. Hyvän muodon kriteeri Berliozille sävellyksessä oli se, pitääkö kappale esityksessä kuulijan huomion yllä, ja onko se sopivan pitkä suhteessa ainekseen.

Välillä Berlioz siirsi luovat voimavaransa orkesterin suuntaan ja sävelsi joukon hankalasti luokiteltavia, sinfonian, kantaatin ja oopperan välimaastoon sijoittuvia mestariteoksia. Vähitellen näidenkin ns. painopiste siirtyi ajan myötä yhä voimakkaammin draaman suuntaan. Berliozin soinnullinen sanasto ei ole kenties yhtä laaja kuin edistyneimmillä romantikoilla. Berliozin musiikista löydetään myös ajoittain tietynlaista osaamattomuutta, mutta kaikki mitä hän kirjoitti, on täysin mahdollista ja älyllisesti kiehtovaa, musiikkia, joka näkemyksensä ja keinovaraisuuden suurisuuntaisuudessa viittaa ajassa pitkälle eteenpäin. Berliozin harmoninen ajattelukin kehittyi hänen vanhetessaan yhä epäsovinnaisemmaksi eikä päinvastoin.

Kokonaisia oopperoita Berliozilta on säilynyt vain kolme kappaletta ”Benvenuto Cellini”, muistelmiin perustuva renessanssi-ilottelu, ”Troijalaiset” joka oli 5-näytöksinen ooppera sekä ”Béatrice et Bénédict”, koominen ooppera. Berlioz kuitenkin tunnettiin pitkän aikaa paremmin kapellimestarina kuin säveltäjänä. Berliozin töihin vaikuttivat mm. Beethoven ja Shakespeare, sekä vuonna 1828 G. de Nervalsin Alku-Faustin käännös antoi hänelle idean teokseensa ”Huit Scénes Faust”. Berliozin teos ”Symphonie Fantastique” oli ehkä hänen tunnetuin ja suosituin sävellyksensä, mutta myös ”Grande Messe des morts” eli ”Requiem” niitti suosiotansa. Berliozin orkesterille ja solistille laatima Théophile Gautier'n runoista tehty laulusarja Nuits d´Été on kaiketi edelleen arvostetuin ranskankielinen yksinlauluteos.

Vaikka Berlioz sävelsi vain kolme oopperaa, on jokainen niistä rakennettu kuin näytelmä, ja esimerkiksi laulusarja Nuits d´Été havainnollistaa selvästi, että kuinka määrätietoisesti Berlioz yritti sulattaa yhteen musiikin ja draaman. Berliozin melodiat saattavat hämmästyttää aluksi, koska niissä ei ole niitä rytmisiä liikkeitä ja käänteitä, joita on totuttu odottamaan. Joskus kun sisimmät ainekset jäävät piiloon tai päinvastoin ylikorostuvat siksi, että ne esitetään väärin, se voi pilata kokonaisen rytmis-melodisen rakenteen.

Berliozilla ei ollut oppilaita eikä hän myöskään muodostanut koulukuntaa, selvimmin hänen vaikutuksensa näkyy myöhempien romantikkojen orkesterin käytössä. Ilman Berliozin esikuvaa Lisztin, Wagnerin, Tšaikovskin, Straussin tai Sibeliuksen orkesteritaide olisi ollut paljon köyhempäälähde?. Myöskään venäläiset säveltäjät eivät olisi voineet jäädä Berliozin vaikutuksen ulkopuolelle jo siitä syystä, että Pietari oli Berliozin musiikin vaalinnan harvoja pysyviä tukikohtia.

Title Text.

Гекто́р Луи́ Берлио́зфранцузский композитор, дирижёр, музыкальный писатель. Член Института Франции (1856).

Гекто́р Луи́ Берлио́з (фр. Hector Berlioz) (11 декабря 1803 — 8 марта 1869) — французский композитор, дирижёр, музыкальный писатель. Член Института Франции (1856).

Биография Родился в городке Кот-Сент-Андре (Изер) на юго-востоке Франции в семье врача. В 1821 Берлиоз — студент-медик, но в скором времени, несмотря на сопротивление родителей, он оставляет медицину, решив посвятить себя музыке. Первое публичное выполнение его произведения «Торжественная месса» состоялось в Париже в 1825, не имея, однако, никакого успеха. В 1826—1830 Берлиоз учится в Парижской консерватории у Ж. Ф. Лесюэра и А. Рейхи. В 1828—1830 гг. вновь были исполнены несколько произведений Берлиоза — увертюры «Ваверлей», «Francs-juges» и «Фантастическая симфония» (эпизод из жизни артиста). Хотя эти произведения также не встретили особенного сочувствия, тем не менее они обратили на молодого композитора внимание публики. Начиная с 1828 г., Берлиоз стал не без успеха выступать на поприще музыкального критика.

Получив Римскую премию (1830) за кантату «Сарданапал», жил как стипендиат в Италии, из которой он, однако, вернулся через 18 месяцев убежденным противником итальянской музыки. Из своего путешествия Берлиоз привез с собой увертюру «Король Лир» и симфоническое произведение «Le retour à la vie», названное им «мелологом» (смесь инструментальной и вокальной музыки с декламацией), которое составляет продолжение «Фантастической симфонии». Вернувшись в Париж в 1832 г., он занимался композиторской, дирижёрской, критической деятельностью.

С 1834 г. положение Берлиоза в Париже улучшилось, особенно после того, как он стал сотрудником во вновь основанной музыкальной газете «Gazette musicale de Paris», a вслед за тем и в «Journal des Débats». Работая в этих изданиях до 1864 г., Б. приобрел репутацию строгого и серьёзного критика. В 1839 г. он был назначен библиотекарем консерватории, а с 1856 г. — членом Академии. С 1842 много гастролировал за границей. С триумфом выступал как дирижёр и композитор в России (1847, 1867—68), в частности, наполнив публикой Московский манеж.

Личная жизнь Берлиоза омрачилась рядом печальных событий, о которых он детально рассказывает в своих «Мемуарах» (1870). Его первый брак с ирландской актрисой Гарриэт Симпсон (1833), закончился разводом в 1843 (Симпсон много лет страдала неизлечимой нервной болезнью); после её смерти Берлиоз вступал в брак с певицей Марией Ресио, которая внезапно умерла в 1854. Сын композитора от первого брака умер в 1867. Сам композитор скончался в одиночестве 8 марта 1869 года.

[править] Адреса в Санкт-Петербурге 1867—1868 годы — Михайловский дворец — Инженерная улица, 4.

[править] Творчество Берлиоз — яркий представитель романтизма в музыке, творец романтической программной симфонии. Его искусство во многом сродни творчеству В. Гюго в литературе и Делакруа в живописи. Он смело вводил нововведения в области музыкальной формы, гармонии и особенно инструментовки, тяготел к театрализации симфонической музыки, грандиозным масштабам произведений.

Творчество композитора отобразило и присущие романтизму разногласия: стремление к общенародности, массовости музыки употреблялось у него с крайним индивидуализмом, героика и революционный пафос — с интимными выявлениями одинокой души предрасположенного к экзальтации и фантастике художника. В 1826 была написана кантата «Греческая революция» — отзыв на освободительную борьбу греков против Османской империи. Во время Большой июльской революции 1830 года на улицах Парижа разучивал с народом революционные песни, в частности обработанную им для хора и оркестра «Марсельезу». В ряде крупных произведений Берлиоза нашла отражение революционная тематика: в память героев Июльской революции созданные грандиозный «Реквием» (1837) и «Траурно-триумфальная симфония» (1840, написанна к торжественной церемонии перенесения праха жертв июльских событий).


Стиль Берлиоза определился уже в «Фантастической симфонии» (1830, подзаголовок — «Эпизод из жизни художника»). Это известное произведение Берлиоза — первая романтическая программная симфония. В ней нашли отражение типичные для того времени настроения (разлад с действительностью, преувеличенная эмоциональность и чувствительность). Субъективные переживания художника поднимаются в симфонии к социальным обобщениям: тема «несчастной любви» приобретает значение трагедии утраченных иллюзий.

Вслед за симфонией Берлиоз пишет монодраму «Лелио, или Возвращение к жизни» (1831, продолжение «Фантастической симфонии»). Берлиоза привлекали сюжеты произведений Дж. Байрона — симфония для альта и оркестра «Гарольд в Италии» (1834), увертюра «Корсар» (1844); У. Шекспира — увертюра «Король Лир» (1831), драматическая симфония «Ромео и Джульетта» (1839), комическая опера «Беатриче и Бенедикт» (1862, на сюжет «Много шума из ничего»); Гёте — драматическая легенда (оратория) «Осуждение Фауста» (1846, что свободно трактует поэму Гёте). Берлиозу принадлежат также опера «Бенвенуто Челлини» (пост. 1838); 6 кантат; оркестровые увертюры, в частности «Римский карнавал» (1844); романсы и др. пр. Собрание сочинений в 9 сериях (20 тт.) издано в Лейпциге (1900—1907). В последние годы жизни Берлиоз все больше склонялся к академизму, моральной проблематике: ораториальная трилогия «Детство Христа» (1854), оперная дилогия «Троя» по Вергилию («Взятие Трои» и «Троя в Карфагене», 1855—1859).

Из многочисленных его произведений особенного внимания заслуживают: симфония «Гарольд в Италии» (1834), «Реквием» (1837), опера «Бенвенуто Челлини» (1838), симфония-кантата «Ромео и Джульетта» (1839), «Погребальная и торжественная симфония» (1840 г., при открытии Июльской колонны), драматическая легенда «Гибель Фауста» (1846 г.), оратория «Детство Христа» (1854), «Те Deum» для двух хоров (1856), комическая опера «Беатриче и Бенедикт» (1862) и опера «Троянцы в Карфагене» (1864).

Текст к последним двум операм, равно как и к «Фаусту», к «Детству Христа» и к др. произведениям, был сочинен самим Берлиозом.

Из литературных произведений Берлиоза наиболее выдаются: «Voyage musical en Allemagne et en Italie» (Париж, 1854), «Les Soirées de l’orchestre» (Париж, 1853; 2 изд. 1854), «Les grotesques de la musique» (Париж, 1859), «A travers chant» (Париж, 1862), «Traité d’instrumentation» (Париж, 1844).

Причина разноречивости отзывов о Берлиозе как о композиторе в том, что он с самого начала своей музыкальной деятельности пошёл по совершенно новой, вполне самостоятельной дороге. Он тесно примыкал к новому развивавшемуся в то время в Германии музыкальному направлению и когда в 1844 г. посетил Германию, то был там гораздо больше оценен, чем в своем отечестве. В России Б. уже давно получил свою оценку. После своей смерти, а в особенности после франко-прусской войны 1870 г., когда во Франции с особой силой пробудилось национальное, патриотическое чувство, произведения Берлиоза приобрели большую популярность среди его соотечественников.

Значение Берлиоза в области искусства заключается в его глубоком понимании инструментов и в мастерском их применении в оркестровке. Его партитуры полны новых и смелых оркестровых эффектов. Большим распространением пользуется его трактат об инструментовке, переведенный на многие языки. По смерти Берлиоза появились незадолго перед тем написанные им «Mémoires» (Париж, 1870), «Correspondance inedite 1810—1868» (1878).

Берлиоз был выдающимся дирижёром. Вместе с Вагнером он заложил основы новой школы дирижирования, внес важный вклад в развитие музыкально-критической мысли.

Title Text.

Louis Hector Berlioz war ein französischer Komponist und Musikkritiker...

Louis Hector Berlioz (* 11. Dezember 1803 in La Côte-Saint-André, Département Isère; † 8. März 1869 in Paris) war ein französischer Komponist und Musikkritiker.

Berlioz gilt als der wichtigste Vertreter der Romantik in Frankreich, obwohl er selbst dem Begriff „Romantik“ nichts abgewinnen konnte (er verstand sich als klassischer Komponist). Er gilt als Begründer der sinfonischen Programmmusik und der modernen Orchesterinstrumentation. Seine für die damalige Zeit revolutionären Kompositionen wurden kaum verstanden und trugen ihm mehr Kritik als Lob ein. Deshalb musste er seinen Lebensunterhalt zusätzlich als Musikkritiker bestreiten. Obwohl seine Werke bis auf Béatrice et Bénédict (1862 in Baden-Baden) ausnahmslos in Paris uraufgeführt wurden, erfuhr er in Frankreich erst lange nach seinem Tod Anerkennung. Er war jedoch ein großes Vorbild für viele der jungen Romantiker, und entscheidend war sein Einfluss auf Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, Richard Strauss und viele russische Komponisten. 1869 reiste er eigens nach Rostow, um die verschiedenen Melodien des Großen Geläuts, für das die Rostower Glöckner weltberühmt waren, mit eigenen Ohren zu erleben. Sein Grab befindet sich auf dem Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris.

Berlioz gilt als der wichtigste Vertreter der Romantik in Frankreich, obwohl er selbst dem Begriff „Romantik“ nichts abgewinnen konnte (er verstand sich als klassischer Komponist). Er gilt als Begründer der sinfonischen Programmmusik und der modernen Orchesterinstrumentation. Seine für die damalige Zeit revolutionären Kompositionen wurden kaum verstanden und trugen ihm mehr Kritik als Lob ein. Deshalb musste er seinen Lebensunterhalt zusätzlich als Musikkritiker bestreiten. Obwohl seine Werke bis auf Béatrice et Bénédict (1862 in Baden-Baden) ausnahmslos in Paris uraufgeführt wurden, erfuhr er in Frankreich erst lange nach seinem Tod Anerkennung. Er war jedoch ein großes Vorbild für viele der jungen Romantiker, und entscheidend war sein Einfluss auf Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, Richard Strauss und viele russische Komponisten. 1869 reiste er eigens nach Rostow, um die verschiedenen Melodien des Großen Geläuts, für das die Rostower Glöckner weltberühmt waren, mit eigenen Ohren zu erleben. Sein Grab befindet sich auf dem Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris.

Title Text.

Louis Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer...

Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande Messe des morts (Requiem). Berlioz made great contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation and by utilizing huge orchestral forces for his works, sometimes calling for over 1,000 performers. At the other extreme, he also composed around 50 songs for voice and piano.

Early years Berlioz was born in France at La Côte-Saint-André in the département of Isère, near Lyon.His father, a respected provincial physicianand scholar, was responsible for much of the young Berlioz's education.His father was an atheist, with a liberal outlook; his mother was an orthodox Roman Catholic. He had five siblings in all, three of whom did not survive to adulthood.The other two, Nanci and Adèle, remained close to Berlioz throughout his life.

Unlike many other composers of the time, Berlioz was not a child prodigy; he began studying music at age 12, when he began writing small compositions and arrangements. As a result of his father's discouragement, he never learned to play the piano, a peculiarity he later described as both beneficial and detrimental.He became proficient at guitar and flute.He learnt harmony by textbooks alone—he was not formally trained. The majority of his early compositions were romances and chamber pieces.

Still at age 12, as recalled in his Mémoires, he experienced his first passion for a woman, an 18 year old next door neighbour named Estelle Fornier (née Dubœuf). Berlioz appears to have been innately Romantic, this characteristic manifesting itself in his love affairs, adoration of great romantic literature,and his weeping at passages by Virgil  (by age twelve he had learned to read Virgil in Latin and translate it into French under his father's tutelage), Shakespeare, and Beethoven.

 Student life


In 1821, at age 18, Berlioz was sent to Paris to study medicine, a field for which he had no interest and, later, outright disgust after viewing a human corpse being dissected. (He gives a colorful account in his 'Mémoires.) He began to take advantage of the institutions he now had access to in the city, including his first visit to the Paris Opéra, where he saw Iphigénie en Tauride by Christoph Willibald Gluck, a composer whom he came to admire above all, jointly alongside Ludwig van Beethoven.

He also began to visit the Paris Conservatoire library, seeking out scores of Gluck's operas and making personal copies of parts of them. He recalled in his Mémoires his first encounter with Luigi Cherubini, the Conservatoire's then music director. Cherubini attempted to throw the impetuous Berlioz out of the library since he was not a formal music student at that time. Berlioz also heard two operas by Gaspare Spontini, a composer who influenced him through their friendship, and whom he later championed when working as a critic. From then on, he devoted himself to composition. He was encouraged in his endeavors by Jean-François Le Sueur, director of the Royal Chapel and professor at the Conservatoire. In 1823, he wrote his first article—a letter to the journal Le Corsaire defending Spontini's La Vestale. By now he had composed several works including Estelle et Némorin and Le Passage de la mer Rouge (The Crossing of the Red Sea) - both now lost - the latter of which convinced Lesueur to take Berlioz on as one of his private pupils.

Despite his parents' disapproval,in 1824 he formally abandoned his medical studiesto pursue a career in music. He composed the Messe solennelle. This work was rehearsed and revised after the rehearsal but not performed until the following year. Berlioz later claimed to have burnt the score, but it was miraculously re-discovered in 1991.[20] Later that year or in 1825, he began to compose the opera Les francs-juges, which was completed the following year but went unperformed. The work survives only in fragments; the overture survives and is sometimes played in concert.

In 1826 he began attending the Conservatoireto study composition under Le Sueur and Anton Reicha. He also submitted a fugue to the Prix de Rome, but was eliminated in the primary round. Winning the prize would become an obsession until he finally won it in 1830, with his submitting a new cantata every year until he succeeded at his fourth attempt. The reason for this interest in the prize was not just academic recognition. The prize included a five year pension-much needed income for the struggling composer. In 1827 he composed the Waverly overture after Walter Scott's Waverley novels. He also began working as a chorus singer at a vaudeville theatre to contribute towards an income.Later that year, he saw his future wife Harriet Smithson at the Odéon theatre playing Ophelia and Juliet in Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. He immediately became infatuated by both actressand playwright. From then on, he began to send Harriet messages, but she considered Berlioz's letters introducing himself to her so overly passionate that she refused his advances.

In 1828 Berlioz heard Beethoven's third and fifth symphonies performed at the Paris Conservatoire - an experience that he found overwhelming. He also read Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust for the first time (in French translation), which would become the inspiration for Huit scènes de Faust (his Opus 1), much later re-developed as La damnation de Faust. He also came into contact with Beethoven's string quartetsand piano sonatas, and recognised the importance of these immediately. He began to study English so that he could read Shakespeare. At a similar time, he also began to write musical criticism.

He began and finished composition of the Symphonie fantastique in 1830, a work which would bring Berlioz much fame and notoriety. He entered into a relationship with - and subsequently became engaged to - Camille Moke, despite the symphony being inspired by Berlioz's obsession with Harriet Smithson. As his fourth cantata for submittal to the Prix de Rome neared completion, the July Revolution broke out. "I was finishing my cantata when the Revolution broke out," he recorded in his Mémoires, "I dashed off the final pages of my orchestral score to the sound of stray bullets coming over the roofs and pattering on the wall outside my window. On the 29th I had finished, and was free to go out and roam about Paris 'till morning, pistol in hand". Shortly later, he finally won the prize with the cantata Sardanapale. He also arranged the French national anthem La Marseillaise as well as composed an overture to Shakespeare's The Tempest, which was the first of his pieces to play at the Paris Opéra, but an hour before the performance began, quite ironically, a sudden storm created the worst rain in Paris for 50 years, meaning the performance was almost deserted.Berlioz met Franz Liszt who was also attending the concert. This proved to be the beginning of a long friendship. Liszt would later transcribe the entire Symphonie fantastique for piano to enable more people to hear it.

[ Italy

On December 30, 1831, Berlioz left France for Rome, prompted by a clause in the Prix de Rome which required winners to spend two years studying there. Although none of his major works was actually written in Italy, his travels and experiences there would later influence and inspire much of his music. This is most evident in the thematic aspects of his music, particularly Harold en Italie (1834), a work inspired by Byron’s Childe Harold. Berlioz later recalled that his, "intention was to write a series of orchestral scenes, in which the solo viola would be involved as a more or less active participant [with the orchestra] while retaining its own character. By placing it among the poetic memories formed from my wanderings in Abruzzi, I wanted to make the viola a kind of melancholy dreamer in the manner of Byron’s Childe-Harold."

While in Rome, he stayed at the French Academy in the Villa Medici. He found the city distasteful, writing, "Rome is the most stupid and prosaic city I know; it is no place for anyone with head or heart."He therefore made an effort to leave the city as often as possible, making frequent trips to the surrounding country. During one of these trips, while Berlioz enjoyed an afternoon of sailing, he encountered a group of Carbonari. These were members of a secret society of Italian patriots based in France with the aim of creating a unified Italy.

During his stay in Italy, he received a letter from the mother of his fiancée informing him that she had called off their engagement. Instead her daughter was to marry Camille Pleyel (son of Ignaz Pleyel), a rich piano manufacturer. Enraged, Berlioz decided to return to Paris and take revenge on Pleyel, his fiancée, and her mother by killing all three of them. He created an elaborate plan, going so far as to purchase a dress, wig and hat with a veil (with which he was to disguise himself as a woman in order to gain entry to their home). He even stole a pair of double-barrelled pistols from the Academy to kill them with, saving a single shot for himself. Meticulously careful, Berlioz purchased phials of strychnine and laudanumto use as poisons in the event of a pistol jamming.

Despite this careful planning, Berlioz failed to carry through with the plot. By the time he had reached Genoa, he realised he left his disguise in the side pocket of a carriage during his journey. After arriving in Nice (at that time, part of Italy), he reconsidered the entire plan, deciding it to be inappropriate and foolish.He sent a letter to the Academy in Rome, requesting that he be allowed to return. This request was accepted,and he prepared for his trip back.

Before returning to Rome, Berlioz composed the overtures to King Lear in Niceand Rob Roy, and began work on a sequel to the Symphonie fantastique, Le retour à la vie (The Return to Life), renamed Lélio in 1855.

Upon his return to Rome, Berlioz posed for a portrait painting by Emile Signol (completed in April 1832), which Berlioz did not consider to be a good likeness of himself.

Berlioz continued to travel throughout his stay in Italy. He visited Pompeii, Naples, Milan, Tivoli, Florence, Turin and Genoa. Italy was important in providing Berlioz with experiences that would be impossible in France. At times, it was as if he himself was actually experiencing the Romantic tales of Byron in person; consorting with brigands, corsairs, and peasants.In November 1832 he returned to Paris to promote his music, after spending 15 months in Italy, nearly killing his former fiancée’s family, and discovering a deeper romantic side of himself that would continue to affect his music forever.

Decade of productivity Between 1830 and 1840, Berlioz wrote many of his most popular and enduring works.The foremost of these are the Symphonie fantastique (1830), Harold en Italie (1834), the Grande Messe des morts (Requiem) (1837) and Roméo et Juliette (1839).

On Berlioz's return to Paris, a concert including Symphonie fantastique (which had extensively revised in Italy)and Le retour à la vie was performed, with among others in attendance: Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, Heinrich Heine, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, George Sand, Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier, Jules Janin and Harriet Smithson. At this time, Berlioz also met playwright Ernest Legouvé who became a lifelong friend. A few days after the performance, Berlioz and Harriet were finally introduced and entered into a relationship. Despite Berlioz not understanding spoken English and Harriet not knowing any French, on 3 October 1833, they married in a civil ceremony at the British Embassy with Liszt as one of the witnesses.The following year their only child, Louis Berlioz, was born - a source of initial disappointment, anxiety and eventual pride to his father.

In 1834, virtuoso violinist and composer Niccolò Paganini commissioned Berlioz to compose a viola concerto, intending to premiere it as soloist. This became the symphony for viola and orchestra, Harold en Italie. Paganini changed his mind about playing the piece himself when he saw the first sketches for the work; he expressed misgivings over its outward lack of complexity.[citation needed] The premiere of the piece was held later that year. After initially rejecting the piece, , Paganini, as Berlioz's Mémoires recount, knelt before Berlioz in front of the orchestra after hearing it for the first time and proclaimed him a genius and heir to Beethoven.The next day he sent Berlioz a gift of 20,000 francs,the generosity of which left Berlioz uncharacteristically lost for words. Around this time, Berlioz decided to conduct most of his own concerts, tired as he was of conductors who did not understand his music. This decision launched what was to become a lucrative and creatively fruitful career in conducting music both by himself and other leading composers.

Berlioz composed the opera Benvenuto Cellini in 1836. He was to spend much effort and money in the following decades trying to have it performed successfully. Benvenuto Cellini was premiered at the Paris Opéra on 10 September, but was a failure due to a hostile audience.One of his most enduring pieces followed Benvenuto Cellini—the Grande Messe des morts, first performed at Les Invalides[38] in December of that year.Its gestation was difficult; due to the state commission for the work much bureaucracy had to be endured. There was also opposition from Luigi Cherubini, who was at the time the music director of the Paris Conservatoire. Cherubini felt that a government-sponsored commission should naturally be offered to himself rather than the young Berlioz, who was considered an eccentric.(It should be noted, however, that regardless of the animosity between the two composers, Berlioz learned from and admired Cherubini's music, such as the requiem.)

Thanks to the money Paganini had given him after hearing Harold, Berlioz was able to pay off Harriet's and his own debts and suspend his work as a critic. This allowed him to focus on writing the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette for voices, chorus and orchestra. Berlioz later identified this "choral symphony," as he called it, as his favourite composition.[citation needed (He considered his Requiem his best work, however: "If I were threatened with the destruction of the whole of my works save one, I should crave mercy for the Messe des morts".) It was a success both at home and abroad, unlike later great vocal works such as La damnation de Faust and Les Troyens, which were commercial failures. Roméo et Juliette was premiered in a series of three concerts later in 1839 to distinguished audiences, one including Richard Wagner.

The same year Roméo premiered, Berlioz was appointed Conservateur Adjoint (Deputy Librarian) Paris Conservatoire Library. Berlioz supported himself and his family by writing musical criticism for Paris publications, primarily Journal des Débats for over thirty years, and also Gazette musicale and Le Rénovateur.While his career as a critic and writerprovided him with a comfortable income, and he had an obvious talent for writing, he came to detest the amount of time spent attending performances to review, as it severely limited his free time to promote his own composition and produce more compositions. It should also be noted that despite his prominent position in musical criticism, he did not use his articles to promote his own works.


After the 1830s, Berlioz found it increasingly difficult to achieve recognition for his music in France. As a result, he began to travel to other countries more often. Between 1842 and 1863 he traveled to Germany, England, Austria, Russia and elsewhere,where he conducted operas and orchestral music - both his own and others'. During his lifetime, Berlioz was as famous a conductor as he was as a composer.

In 1840, the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale was commissioned to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the July Revolution of 1830. Due to a strict deadline, it was performed only days after it was completed. The performance was held in the open air on 28 July, conducted by Berlioz himself, at the Place de la Bastille. The piece was difficult to hear due to the crowds and timpani of the drum corps.The following year he began but later abandoned the composition of a new opera, La Nonne sanglante; some fragments survive.

In 1841, Berlioz wrote recitatives for a production of Weber's Der Freischütz at the Paris Opéra and also orchestrated Weber’s Invitation à la valse to add ballet music to it. Later that year Berlioz finished composing the song cycle Les nuits d'été for piano and voices (later to be orchestrated). He also entered into a relationship with singer Marie Recio who would become his second wife.

In 1842, Berlioz embarked on a concert tour of Brussels, Belgium from September to October. In December he began a tour in Germany which continued until the middle of next year. Towns visited included Berlin, Hanover, Leipzig, Stuttgart, Weimar, Hechingen, Darmstadt, Dresden, Brunswick, Hamburg, Frankfurt and Mannheim. In Leipzig he met Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann, the latter of whom had written an enthusiastic article on the Symphonie fantastique. He also met Heinrich Marschner in Hanover, Wagner in Dresden and Giacomo Meyerbeer in Berlin.Back in Paris, Berlioz began to compose the concert overture Le Carnaval romain, based on music from Benvenuto Cellini. The work was finished the following year and was premiered shortly after. Nowadays it is among the most popular of his overtures.

In early 1844, Berlioz's highly influentialTreatise on Instrumentation was published for the first time. At this time Berlioz was producing several serialisations for music journals which would eventually be collected into his Mémoires and Les Soirées de l’Orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra).He took a recouperation trip to Nice late that year, during which he composed the concert overture La Tour de Nice (The Tower of Nice), later to be revised and renamed Le Corsaire.Berlioz separated from his wife Harriet, who had long since been suffering from alcohol abuse due to the failure of her acting career,and moved in with Marie Recio. He continued to provide for Harriet for the rest of her life. He also met Mikhail Glinka (who he had initially met in Italy and remained a close friend), who was in Paris between 1844-5, and persuaded Berlioz to embark on one of two tours of Russia. Berlioz's joke "If the Emperor of Russia wants me, then I am up for sale" was taken seriously. The two tours of Russia (the second in 1867) proved so financially successful that they secured Berlioz's finances despite the large amounts of money he was losing in writing unsuccessful compositions. In 1845 he embarked on his first large-scale concert tour of France. He also attended and wrote a report on the inauguration of a statue to Beethoven in Bonn,and began composing La damnation de Faust, incorporating the earlier Huit scènes de Faust. On his return to Paris, the recently completed La damnation de Faust was premiered at the Opéra-Comique, but after two performances, the run was discontinued and the work was a popular failure (perhaps due to its halfway status between opera and cantata), despite receiving generally favourable critical reviews.This left Berlioz heavily in deb to the tune of 5-6000 francs.Becoming ever more disenchanted with his prospects in France, he wrote:

“ Great success, great profit, great performances, etc. etc. ... France is becoming more and more philistine towards music, and the more I see of foreign lands the less I love my own. Art, in France, is dead; so I must go where it is still to be found. In England apparently there has been a real revolution in the musical consciousness of the nation in the last ten years. We shall see.”

In 1847, during a seven-month visit to England, he was appointed conductor at the London Drury Lane Theatre by its then-musical director, the popular French musician Louis-Antoine Jullien. He was impressed with its quality when he first heard the orchestra perform at a promenade concert. In London he also learnt that he knew far more English than he had supposed, although still did not understand half of what was said in conversation.He began writing his Mémoires. During his stay in England, the February Revolution broke out in France. Berlioz arrived back in France in 1848, only to be informed that his father has died shortly after his return. He went back to his birthplace to mourn his father along with his sisters. After his return to Paris, Harriet suffered a series of strokes which left her almost paralysed. Berlioz paid for four servants to look after her on a permanent basis and visited her almost daily.He began composition of his Te Deum.

In 1850 he became Head Librarian at the Paris Conservatoire, the only official post he would ever hold, and a valuable source of income.During this year Berlioz also conducted an experiment on his many vocal critics. He composed a work entitled the Shepherd's Farewell and performed it in two concerts under the guise of it being by a composer named Pierre Ducré. This composer was of course a fictional construct by Berlioz.The trick worked, and the critics praised the work by 'Ducré' and claimed it was an example that Berlioz would do well to follow. "Berlioz could never do that!", he recounts in his Mémoires, was one of the comments.Berlioz later incorporated the piece into La fuite en Egypte from L'enfance du Christ.In 1852, Liszt revived Benvenuto Cellini[32] in what was to become the "Weimar version" of the opera, containing modifications made with the approval of Berlioz.The performances were the first since the disastrous premiere of 1838. Berlioz travelled to London in the following year to stage it at Theatre Royal, Covent Garden but withdrew it after one performance due to the hostile reception.It was during this visit that he witnessed a charity performance involving six thousand five hundred children singing in St Paul's Cathedral. Harriet Smithson died in 1854. L'enfance du Christ was completed later that year and was well-received upon its premiere. Unusually for a late Berlioz work, it appears to have remained popular long after his death. In October, Berlioz married Marie Recio. In a letter written to his son, he said that having lived with her for so long, it was his duty to do so. In early 1855 Le Retour à la vie was revised and renamed Lélio. Shortly afterwards, the Te Deum received its premiere with Berlioz conducting. During a short visit to London, Berlioz had a long conversation with Wagner over dinner. A second edition of Treatise on Instrumentation was also published, with a new chapter detailing aspects of conducting.

In 1864 Berlioz was made Officier de la Légion d’honneur. On 22 August, Berlioz heard from a friend that Amélie, who had been suffering from poor health, had died at the age of 26. A week later, while walking in the Montmartre Cemetery, he discovered Amélie’s grave: she had been dead for six months. By now, many of Berlioz's friends and family had died, including both of his sisters. Events like these became all too common in his later life, as his continued isolation from the musical scene increased as the focus shifted to Germany.He wrote:

“ I am in my 61st year; past hopes, past illusions, past high thoughts and lofty conceptions. My son is almost always far away from me. I am alone. My contempt for the folly and baseness of mankind, my hatred of its atrocious cruelty, have never been so intense. And I say hourly to Death: ‘When you will’. Why does he delay?” Berlioz met Estelle Fornier - the object of his childhood affections - in Lyon for the first time in 40 years, and began a regular correspondence with her Berlioz soon realised that he still longed for her, and eventually she had to inform him that there was no possibility that they could become closer than friends.By 1865, an initial printing of 1200 copies of his Mémoires was completed. A few copies were distributed amongst his friends, but the bulk were, slightly morbidly, stored in his office at the Paris Conservatoire, to be sold upon his death. He travelled to Vienna in December 1866 to conduct the first complete performance there of La damnation de Faust. In 1867 Berlioz's son Louis, a merchant shipping captain, died of yellow feverin Havana. After learning this, Berlioz burnt a large number of documents and other mementos which he had accumulated during his life, keeping only a conducting baton given to him by Mendelssohn and a guitar given to him by Paganini. He then wrote his will. The intestinal pains had been gradually increasing, and had now spread to his stomach, and whole days were passed in agony. At times he experienced spasms in the street so intense that he could barely move.Later that year he embarked on his second concert tour of Russia, which would also be his last of any kind. The tour was extremely lucrative for him, so much so that Berlioz turned down an offer of 100,000 francs from American Steinway to perform in New York.In Saint Petersburg, Berlioz experienced a special pleasure at performing with the "first-rate" orchestra of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory He returned to Paris in 1868, exhausted, with his health damaged due to the Russian winter. He immediately travelled to Nice to recuperate in the Mediterranean climate, but slipped on some rocks by the sea shore, possibly due to a stroke, and had to return to Paris, where he lived as an invalid.

On 8 March 1869 Berlioz died at his Paris home, No.4 rue de Calais, at 30 minutes past midday. He was surrounded by friends at the time. His funeral was held at the recently completed Église de la Trinité on 11 March, and he was buried in Montmartre Cemetery with his two wives, who were exhumed and re-buried next to him. His last words were reputed to be "Enfin, on va jouer ma musique"(They are finally going to play my music). From any other composer, these would be suspected to be apocryphal, but with Berlioz one cannot be so sure.[citation needed]

Berlioz as a conductor

Berlioz's work as a conductor was highly influentialand brought him fame across Europe. He was considered by Charles Hallé, Hans von Bülow and others to be the greatest conductor of his era. Berlioz initially began conducting due to frustrations over the inability of other conductors - more used to performing older and simpler music - to master his advanced and progressive works,with their extended melodiesand rhythmic complexity. He began with more enthusiasm than mastery, and was not formally trained,but through perseverance his skills improved. He was also willing to take advice from others, as evidenced by Spontini criticising his early use of large gestures while conducting. One year later, according to Hallé, his movements were much more economical, enabling him to control more nuance in the music.His expert understanding of the way the sound of each instrument interacts with each other (demonstrated in his Treatise on Instrumentation) was attested to by the critic Louis Engel, who mentions how Berlioz once noticed, amidst an orchestral tutti, a minute pitch difference between two clarinets.Engel offers an explanation of Berlioz's ability to detect such things as in part due to the sheer nervous energy he was experiencing during conducting.

Despite this talent, Berlioz never held an employed position of conductor during his lifetime, forced to be content with only guest conducting. This was almost not the case. In late 1835, he was approached by the management of a new concert hall in Paris, the Gymnase Musical, and offered a position as their musical director. To Berlioz this was an ideal opportunity. Not only would it give him a large annual salary (between 6000 to 12,000 francs), but it would also give him a platform from which to perform his own music, and the music of fellow progressives. Berlioz accepted the offer, and signed the contract for the position. However, a new decree issued by the revolutionary government forced him to change his mind. The obstacle was one of the many restrictions that the revolutionary government had placed on the running of musical establishments, forbidding the performance of vocal music,so they did not compete with the influential Paris Opéra (among other organisations). There were passionate arguments and attempts to circumvent this restriction, but they fell on deaf ears, and the Gymnase Musical became a dance hall instead.This left Berlioz dejected, and would prove to have been a crucial cross-roads in his life, forcing him to work long hours as a critic, which severely impaired his free time available for composition.

From then on, he conducted at many different occasions, but mainly during grand tours of various countries where he was paid handsomely for visiting. In particular, towards the end of his life, he made a lot of money by touring Russia twice, the final visit proving extremely lucrative and also being the final conducting tour before his death. This enabled him not only to perform his music to a wider audience, but also to increase his influence across Europe - for example, his orchestration was studied by many Russian composers. Not just fellow hyper-Romantic Tchaikovsky, but also members of The Five are indebted to these techniques, including Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, but even Modest Mussorgsky - often portrayed as uninterested in refined orchestration - revered Berlioz and died with a copy of Berlioz's Treatise on Instrumentation on his bed.Similarly, his conducting technique as described by contemporary sources appears to set the groundwork for the clarity and precision favoured in the French School of conducting right up to the present, exemplified by such figures as Pierre Monteux, Désiré-Emile Inghelbrecht, Paul Paray, Charles Münch, André Cluytens, Pierre Boulez and Charles Dutoit.

Although neglected in France for much of the 19th century, the music of Berlioz has often been cited as extremely influential in the development of the symphonic form, instrumentation, and the depiction in music of programmatic and literary ideas, features central to musical Romanticism. He was considered extremely progressive for his day, and he, Wagner, and Liszt have been called the "Great Trinity of Progress" of 19th century Romanticism.[citation needed] Richard Pohl, the German critic in Schumann's musical journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, called Berlioz "the true pathbreaker".[citation needed] Liszt was an enthusiastic performer and supporter, and Wagner himself, after first expressing great reservations about Berlioz, wrote to Liszt saying: "we, Liszt, Berlioz and Wagner, are three equals, but we must take care not to say so to him." As Wagner here implies, Berlioz himself was indifferent to the idea of what was called "la musique du passé" (music of the past), and clearly influenced both Liszt and Wagner (and other forward-looking composers) although he increasingly began to dislike many of their works. Wagner's remark also suggests the strong ethnocentrism characteristic of European composers of the time on both sides of the Rhine. Berlioz not only influenced Wagner through his orchestration and breaking of conventional forms, but also in his use of the idée fixe in the Symphonie fantastique which foreshadows the leitmotif.Liszt came to see Berlioz not only as a composer to support, but also to learn from, considering Berlioz an ally in his aim for "A renewal of music through its closer union with poetry".

During his centenary in 1903, while receiving attention from all leading musical reference books, he was still not generally accepted as being one of the great composers. Some of his music was still in neglect and his following was smaller than other, mainly German, composers. Even half a century did not change much,and it took until the 1960s for the right questions to be asked about his work, and for it to be viewed in a more balanced and sympathetic light. One of the pivotal events in this fresh ignition of interest in the composer was a performance of Les Troyens by Rafael Kubelík in 1957 at Covent Garden.The music of Berlioz enjoyed a revival during the 1960s and 1970s, due in large part to the efforts of French conductor Charles Münch and of British conductor Sir Colin Davis, who recorded his entire oeuvre, bringing to light a number of Berlioz's lesser-known works. An unusual (but telling) example of the increase of Berlioz's fame in the 60s was an explosion of forged autographs, manuscripts, and letters, evidently created to cater for a much greater interest in the composer Davis's recording of Les Troyens was the first near-complete recording of that work. The work, which Berlioz never saw staged in its entirety during his life, is now a part of the international repertoire,if still something of a rarity. Les Troyens was the first opera performed at the newly built Opéra Bastille in Paris on March 17, 1990 in a production claimed to be complete, but lacking the ballets.

In 2003, the bicentenary of Berlioz's birth, his achievements and status are much more widely recognised, and his music is viewed as both serious and original, rather than an eccentric novelty.Newspaper articles reported his colourful life with zeal, very many festivals dedicated to the composer were held, readings of his books and a French dramatised television biography all helped to create a lot of exposure to the composer's life and music - far more than the previous centenary anniversary. Numerous recording projects were begun or reissued,and broadcasts of his music increased.[ Prominent Berlioz conductor Colin Davis had already been in the process of recording much of Berlioz's music on the LSO Live label, and has continued this project to this date with a L'enfance du Christ recording issued in 2007. The internet was also a factor in the celebrations, with the comprehensive site (which has been online since 1997) being an easily available source of information to anyone interested in the composer. The 'Berlioz 2003' celebrations, organised by French academic institutions,also had a promenent website, listing events, publications and gatherings the domain of which has now lapsed. There was also a site maintained by the Association nationale Hector Berlioz.A proposal was made to remove his remains to the Panthéon, and while initially encouraged by French President Jacques Chirac, it was postponed by him, claimed to be because it was too shortly after Alexandre Dumas was moved there. He may have also been influenced by a political dispute over Berlioz's worthiness as a republican, since Berlioz, who regularly met kings and princes, had severely criticized the 1848 Revolution, speaking of the "odious and stupid republic".[citation needed] There were also objections from supporters of Berlioz, some of whom claimed that Berlioz was an anti-establishment figure and would have no interest in such a ceremony, and that he was happy to be buried next to his two wives in the location he has been in for almost 150 years. Since Chirac retired as President, the future of Berlioz's resting place is still unclear.

[ Influences

[ Literature Berlioz had a keen affection for literature, and many of his best compositions are inspired by literary works. For Symphonie fantastique, Berlioz was inspired in part by Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. For La damnation de Faust, Berlioz drew on Goethe's Faust; for Harold en Italie, he drew on Byron's Childe Harold; for Benvenuto Cellini, he drew on Cellini's own autobiography. For Roméo et Juliette, Berlioz turned, of course, to Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. For his magnum opus, the monumental opera Les Troyens, Berlioz turned to Virgil's epic poem The Aeneid. In his last opera, the comic opera Béatrice et Bénédict, Berlioz prepared a libretto based loosely on Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. His composition "Tristia" (for orchestra and chorus) drew its inspiration from Shakespeare's Hamlet.

[Shakespeare In 1827, Berlioz watched Irish actress Harriet Smithson at the Odéon theatre playing Ophelia and Juliet in Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. This led to two intense infatuations. One was to Smithson, which would result in a disastrous marriage. The other was to Shakespeare, which would become a lifelong love.He followed the rest of the 1827 season closely, until the company moved to the Salle Favart, and began learning the plays from pocket translations on sale.Though the performances were in English, of which Berlioz knew virtually none, he was still able to grasp the grandeur and sublimnity of Shakespeare's language along with the richness of the plays' dramatic design.

The timing for these performances, not just for Berlioz' career but also for French Romanticism in general, could not have been more apt. Berlioz was on the verge of producing his most Romantic works—as were the writers Vigny, Dumas, Gautier and several others in attendance that night. Shakespeare served as a model for French Romanticism, with Hugo extolling Shakespeare as a challenge to French classicism and the model for the new Romantic theater.

Shakespeare for Berlioz represented the summit of poetic utterance, with the bard's veracity of dramatic expression and freedom from formal constraints resounding in the composer's spirit. More profoundly, Shakespeare became a source, by way of its dramatic truth, for Berlioz' fundamental notion of expressive truth;this was how he could call Romeo and Juliet "the supreme drama of my life."He read from the plays constantly, often aloud for anyone who would listen. He quoted from them for the rest for the rest of his life and would associate any personal upheaval with its Shakespearian counterpart.

Berlioz was especially taken with Shakespeare's ability to pinpoint the heart of a dramatic conflict and penetrating the secrets of intense love. These secrets, Berlioz suggested in the text of Roméo and Juliette the playwright took with him to heaven. Time and again through the years, Berlioz would distill the favorite image of a play and distill it into musical terms. Roméo et Juliette may have been the first. Later came The Tempest, King Lear, a funeral march for the final scene in Hamlet, the love scene for Les Troyens (which, some claim, Berlioz took from The Merchant of Venice), and Béatrice and Benedict.

[Faust Berlioz discovered Goethe's Faust through Gérard de Nerval's translation, published in December 1827. Its impact on Berlioz was, again, profound and immediate, with the Faustian concept of man striking several chords with the composer. He described Shakespeare and Goethe in an 1828 letter as "the silent confidants of my suffering; they hold the key to my life."In any event, Shakespearian tragedy and Faustian mystique became of one type in his mind.

[ The Romantics Simultaneous with Berlioz' discovery of Shakespeare was his immersion in the texts of true Romanticism. These included the works of Moore, Scott and Byron. All three inspired Berlioz to compose works based on theirs. He also immersed himself in Chateaubriand, E.T.A. Hoffmann, James Fenimore Cooper and his compatriots Hugo, Vigny, de Musset and Nerval. He later added Balzac, Flaubert and Gautier to his list of favorites; he also used Gautier's poems as texts for his song cycle Les nuits d'eté'.

Perhaps as a result of this reading and seeing himself as an archetypical tragic hero, Berlioz began to weave personal references into his music. It may in face have been Shakespeare, shread with the other young artist-heroes of 19th-century France, that drew Berlioz firmly into the brotherhood of Romanticism.

[ Music

[ Beethoven Berlioz writes in his Memoirs,

In an artist's life one thunderclap sometimes follows swiftly on another ... I had just had the successive revelations of Beethoven and Weber. Now at another point on the horizon I saw the giant form of Beethoven rear up. the shock was almost as great as that of Shakespeare had been. Beethoven opened before me a new world of music, as Shakespeare had revealed a new universe of poetry.

He was able to hear Beethoven's works through the performances of the Société des Concerts do Conservatoire, an orchestra founded by François-Antoine Haberneck and his colleagues to promote modern orchestral music. The inaugural concert, on 9 March 1828, featured the French premiere of the Eroica Symphony.Despite protests from French and Italian composers,by the end of the first season Haberneck and the orchestra had also performed the Fifth Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto, the Violin Concerto as well as other works.

For Berlioz the experience of hearaing the Eroica brought the last and greatest revelation of the power of instrumental music as an expressive language, along with the freedom of action with which it could be expressive.He understood at once that the symphony was a dramatic form to an extene that he had not previously realized,and that in Beethoven he saw a way to the dramatic manner in which he desired to compose.

Most tellingly, hearing the Eroica inspired Berlioz to widen his horizons for the first time past opera and other vocal works and consider the expressive power of purely instrumental music.Previously, he had adhered to Le Sueur's belief that symphonic music was a lesser, limited form of composition that had been taken by Mozart and Haydn as far as possible. He would find instrumental music to be far more penetrating in expression and articulation than vocal setting. "Now that I have heard that terrifying giant Beethoven," he wrote, "I know exactly where my musical art stands; the question is to take it from there and push it further."

[ Other composers Next to those of Beethoven, Berlioz showed deep reverence for the works of Gluck, Mozart, Étienne Méhul, Carl Maria von Weber and Gaspare Spontini, as well as respect for those of Rossini, Meyerbeer and Verdi.

Curiously perhaps, the adventures in chromaticism of his prominent contemporaries and associates Frederic Chopin and Richard Wagner seemed to have little effect on Berlioz's style.